Instrumentation and Control Systems

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Digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems have proven to be useful and beneficial in a wide range of applications including fossil-fueled power generation, electric power distribution, petroleum refining, petrochemical production, aerospace, and some nuclear power plant applications (e.g., core protection calculators, diesel generator load sequencers, a few digital reactor protection systems, and plant radiation monitoring systems).


Level sensors are used to detect liquid or powder levels, or interfaces between liquids. These level measurements can be either continuous or point values represented with various output options. Continuous level sensors are devices that measure level within a specified range and give output of a continuous reading of level. Point level sensors devices mark a specific level, generally used as high alarm or switch.
These sensors can be mounted on the top, bottom or side of the container holding the substance to be measured. Among the technologies for measuring level are air bubbler technology, capacitive or RF admittance, differential pressure, electrical conductivity or resistively, mechanical or magnetic floats, optical units, pressure membrane, radar or microwave, radio frequency, rotation paddle, ultrasonic or sonic and vibration or tuning fork technology. Analog outputs level sensors can be current or voltage signals. Also possible is a pulse or frequency. ...
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