1), designed by Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill in 1952, represented the deep plan space.
Burolandschaft or "office landscape" was intended to enhance the flow of communication and making decisions. Organisations used free standing panels that could be repositioned. The offices of CIS building were the early examples of Burolandschaft in the UK. However, it was not adopted on a large scale.
Robert Probst of Herman Miller introduced the 'Action Office' system (see fig. 2) in the USA in 1964. The goal was to create a system that permitted employees to work sitting or standing and to provide them with display spaces for work in progress and with adequate storage facilities (Pulos, 1988: 338). Office furniture should be a help in promoting productivity and privacy in office organisations. The approach focused on sets of components designed to permit individual discretion in office design, assuming high levels of autonomy (Worthington, 1997: 29).
The British office situation bears little resemblance to that of the rest of the Europe and the buildings have more in common with their counterparts across the Atlantic. The American influence of the British office design is to be expected, as a large number of American architects, space planners and developers are working in the UK (van Meel, 2000: 57). .The British office market adopted American-style deep office floors with air conditioning and raised floors. The plans tend to have central cores and all secondary functions are concentrated in a single core with vast areas of office space wrapped around it (see fig. 4). They are believed to be cheaper to build and reflected the interest of the corporation for efficiency and flexibility. The open plan layouts have glazed partitions that are used for visual control, giving the managers the ability to see their employees. On the other hand, they reflect a very open management style.
Fig.3. Open Plan Fig.4. Deep Plan
The office design was changed forever when personal computer was introduced in 1980. Orbit (Organisations, Buildings and Information Technology) (see fig. 5) studies were done to respond to the demand of Information Technology. It explained the direct and indirect impact of Information Technology on office design.
Office building design is today a far more complex procedure than it used to be, and it will be more certainly complicated in the near future (Burton, 2001: 7). Computer technologies affect the office building industries. As light affects mood, different lightning systems and equipments are installed in different locations, creating a flexible office environment. The shape of the interior spaces is also takes into consideration as surfaces of buildings set the boundaries of for sound. The shape of interior spaces and the texture of surfaces determine the pattern of sounds ray throughout the space (Clements-Croome, 2004: 59). Universal footprints that can be reconfigured to meet the needs of different work styles have been incorporated. In accommodating the