(Hammond, 2003, p. 59) Now, what Hammond means here are two aspects of the same situation. By 'acceptance of pluralism' he means choice of multiple solutions and whenever there is more than one solution in any organisation, manager has to select one thereby rejecting the rest of them. This creates 'conflicting situations' which Hammond has referred to as 'surrender of power'. This tension between the recognized need for pluralism and the desire for influence or control is absolutely critical to a consideration of the impact of systems thinking, and forms the basis for 'soft' approaches within the field.
Soft Systems Approach is mostly used in information systems as an instantiation of information technology, where the same information technology can be instantiated in different ways. SSA usage is also highlighted in Management Information Systems, therefore, is that it involves not just information technology, but also its instantiation. ...
SSA usage is also highlighted in Management Information Systems, therefore, is that it involves not just information technology, but also its instantiation. There are the rich organisational and political processes whereby a given set of information technology is instantiated and there are the rich organisational and political processes pertaining to the continual managing, maintaining, and changing of the information technology so as to sustain the instantiation.
In the same spirit, socio-technical systems theory also make use of SSA thereby making the claim that separate efforts to optimise the technical system alone and the social system alone will not only lead to a global suboptimum, but can even be unfeasible in the first place. Equally, the same information system can be a success in one organisation but a failure in another, while the same organisation can experience success with one information system but failure with another. Hence, on one hand SSA creates complexities for the information system where as on the other hand IS utilises the opportunity to be studied, understood, and managed in an organisational context. (Currie & Galliers, 1999, p. 13)
Before the arrival of SSA, the best example is that of the production unit in which the approach adopted was to consider each production unit as a sociotechnical system. (Scott, 1998, p. 32). The Tavistock research team was able to make a number of comparative studies in the north-east coalfield which, together with the rest of the British coal industry, had recently been nationalised. The Durham area offered a wide variety of mining methods, often in the same pit or associated with the same seam of coal, although the degree of