This occurs when technology has developed new instruments which can profoundly affect scientific theories; or, technology has discovered new methods which require explanation through the development of new theories by scientists to explain occurrences.
The first pathway is exemplified by the invention of the telescope, which started the development of better astronomical instruments which made the old theory of the universe having the earth at its center so inexplicable that the idea of a sun-centered solar system became more realistic.
Interaction between science and technology has increased especially in the 20th century. It often takes the path from scientific knowledge resulting to practical devices. However, this path is often long, and can be subject to stops, starts and changes in direction. Thus, the flow of information in this case is not linear, but is non-linear or can take any direction or sub-directions.
Governments have in recent decades implemented measures designed to speed up the flow from scientific knowledge to technology. As an example, the automotive industry had been able to come up with theoretical developments within decades. In contrast and prior to government interventions, such developments may have taken centuries to develop. ...Show more