GPS is a system capable of providing position information anywhere on earth, a constellation of orbiting satellites, various orbits around the earth, NAVSTAR GPS, and it is also a user receivers acquired signal and determines its position.
GPS (Global Positioning System) is a triangulation-based technology which was developed by DOD that cost them $10 billion…
GPS is used mostly on land, sea and airborne navigation, also in surveying, geophysical exploration, mapping and geodesy, vehicle location system, farming and transportation systems. Also for telecommunication infrastructure applications include network timing and enhanced 999 for mobile users. It is also important to global delivery of precise and common time to fixe and mobile users.
In the user segment we find GPS user equipment that are portable and fixed and are used by military and civilian for navigation, surveying and GIS. In the control segment are also two uses. One is ground facilities which are responsible for: 1) satellite tracking, 2) telemetry, 3) orbit and ephemeris computations, 4) up-linking of the computed data, 5) supervising the daily management of the space segment, 6) five ground control stations (Monitor Stations), 7) one Master Control Station. The second use is the Master Control Station that: 1) receive tracking data from the monitor stations, 2) calculates satellites ephemeris, 3) adjust satellite clocks, 4) maneuvers satellites if needed, 4) encrypts signals and 5) maintain GPS reference system (WGS84). The space segment likewise has also different uses like 1) constellation of 24 satellites, 2) in six orbital planes around the equator (60 degrees apart), 3) four satellite per orbit and 4) orbital planes inclined 55 degrees from the equator.
Characteristics of GPS Satellite: a) seven satellites are typically visible 10 degrees or more above the horizon, b) each satellite is about 2 to 3k lbs, c) satellites orbit the earth every 12 hours, d) time can be figured to within 100 nano secs.
There are several basic concept of GPS Satellites: 1) satellites are reference points to locations on earth (their locations are known), 2) a location of a point on earth is identified by "triangulation", 3) signals from the three satellites are used, 4) travel time of each signal is determined, 5) signals travel at the speed of light (distance = travel time x speed of light.
The triangulation equation has 3 variables and one is, where exactly are the satellites From orbital mechanics, the location of satellites are determined, an almanac of orbital information for all satellites are stored in each satellite and a ground control-stations continuously update location information of each satellite and transmit it to them (i.e. ephemeris). The second variable is: how long does it take for the radio signal to travel the distance. Under this equation are the functions of satellite like maintain an accurate time using on board atomic clocks, another is receive and store data transmitted by the control stations such as constellation almanac and individual ephimeris and still another is to transmit signal containing time and orbital information to the user receiver. The third variable is how far is the point from the satellite.
Pointers for survey:
Identify points to be surveyed, for example, stations. First group should contain a control station and each group should include at least one station from another group - pivoting station. All stations in a group should be observed during the same session ...
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Firstly, a rational man is known to believe that the universe had a beginning. Secondly, galaxies appear to be moving away from us at a speed which is proportional to their distance. This observation goes hand in hand with the expansion of the universe and suggests that the universe was once compacted (Delsemme, 1998).
The surveys are consistently accurate to the sub centimetre level. When the GPS base is established on a known latitude and longitude, and if post processing is applied to the base station, standardized coordinates for GIS mapping is provided, or any other application that requires coordinates based on latitude and longitude, UTM zone, State Plane Zone, or any of the standard zones and map projections.
In the United Kingdom, hydrography has a long history since the British were always a sea-faring nation with easy access to the sea and with little alternative for trade and commerce with other nations than by the sea. King Charles 2 appointed Captain Grenville Collins as the 'Hydrographer to the King' as far back in time as 1683 (Mason, 2007).
However, GPS had already a remarkable impact on surveying, first as a technology for the "control surveys", for which the purpose was first introduced into many countries during the early 1980's before the full satellite constellation was available to navigation users.
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“The technology operates on the principle of triangulation—if the difference from an observer to three known points can be measured, the position of the observer can be calculated” (“Global Positioning System”). The US government maintains the GPS and the system can be accessed by anyone who has a GPS receiver.
The facility in this case is currently being used in accordance to its use and this therefore means that improvements in the property will help in increasing the usefulness and the functionality to the public.
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