It is an actively evolving social network which brings together myriad topics into a uniform hypertextual medium. It looks like a giant graph with hypertext, pages and edges as its nodes. Closely observed, the Web reveals textual matter, a tag structure, site identity and organization. In simple terms, the Web is just one of the basic structures of the much broader internet.
The internet was first conceptualized in 1969 by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the US. The internet operates on the basis of packets of data traveling to various addresses at high speed. The TCP/IP mandates that every computer connected to the internet must have an identity code that serves as its address on the net. This address used to be 16 bits in length (IPv4) but currently a 128-bit long (IPv6) is slowly replacing the original type which lacks enough variants to match the high proliferation of computers on the net. Each address, just like an e-mail address, must be unique and therefore distinct from any other.
For the service to function well each service protocol is assigned a unique transport method and at least one numeric identifier ranging from 0 to 65535. This identifier is known as the port, short form of transport method used. The transport method can either be telephone like communication TCP or the postal mail-like communication UDP. For instance the WWW is assigned TCP port 80, outgoing e-mail (SMTP) is assigned port 25 while mIRC owns TCP 6660 to 6669 and UDP 113.
All packets of information traveling on the network are required to carry with them the IP address and port of the source as well as IP address and port of the destination computer. This information helps in the routing of data passed on in this way.
The different protocols of the internet have their own rules for communicating. The Web consists of servers or websites and clients or browsers. For the sake of intercommunication they use HTTP. Each resource such as a web page, image or video clip is identified by means of a web address known as a URI or URL. These URIs can be referenced in a page using hyperlinks. The web page is itself formatted using HTML.
The structure of the internet is such that it has three levels: backbones, regional networks and local area networks (LAN). The backbones connect regional networks at a national or international level, for instance between two countries or continents. The regional networks are within countries or provinces of the same country. The LANs can be found within a company, a university or even an office with interconnected computers. Of the three, the backbones carry the largest amounts of data since they basically connect large regimes of active communication. Their bandwidths are therefore large with the ability to transport millions of packets at the same time. Examples of backbones are the European Union's Ebone or the US NSFNET or SprintLink, J. Gillies and R. Cailliau 2000.
A sizeable part of the internet comprises telephone infrastructure. However, it makes a versatile use of the lines such that instead of only one level of communication taking place, such as a one-on-one conversation; the internet employs the use of statistical multiplexing in which information exchange is broken into small packets of about 200 bytes which are sent via any available combination