Collection of data and numerical crunching of data lies at the core of land surveying practices. While several technological innovations have been successfully adopted in this profession ;the most remarkable have been in the area of developing integrated software to address a host of issues involved in land surveying through development of integrated software packages built on multiple utilities. Some of these software packages are developed on an ongoing basis and as projects with additions occurring every now and then. Such software represents not only a time saving innovation which handles larger amount of relational data but also makes available refined and technical outputs. These packages necessitate a series of changes in the organization adopting them in form of reskilling, training and reorientation of existing practices. Unless these and other organizational changes occur alongside the new technology the practical and operational utility of such innovations cannot be harnessed to full. This paper looks at the various organizational changes that may be required to adopt new technology and innovation.
Diffusion versus invention of New Technology
Quite dissimilar to the event of invention of a new technology, which though may seem to emerge after a series of tests, trials and experimenting but often appears to occur as a single event or jump, the diffusion of that technology usually appears as a continuous and gradual process. Yet it is the diffusion of the technology that ultimately impacts productivity and operational efficiency. As Rosenberg(1972) stated" in the history of diffusion of many innovations, one cannot help being struck by two characteristics of the diffusion process: its apparent overall slowness on the one hand, and the wide variations in the rates of acceptance of different inventions, on the other."
Diffusion of new technology is the process where a host of managerial decisions need to be taken in the backdrop of intricate calculations of economic cost and benefits analysis. Thus diffusion can be viewed as a cumulative or aggregate process involving a series of
individual calculations that reckon the incremental benefits of adopting a new technology vis a vis the costs of change, and almost always in an environment featured by risk and uncertainty (as to the future maintainability and utility of the technology ).Once the new technology passes the cost-benefit hurdle decision then its diffusion and adoption process must begin. However prior to that any management must theoretically analyze the structure the structure of each available technology. Each new technology