2010). Thus, this essay critically evaluates whether major sport events are of major benefit to the host city, region, or country. Social Impacts Tourism research has presented a wide array of proof that major sport events can have negative and positive impacts on a host city. Several of the positive outcomes concern economic gain or national honour and high spirits among citizens. This national honour leads to the ‘psychic income’ related to hosting a major event (Gratton & Henry 2001, 32). Moreover, major sporting events have been said to introduce nations to new knowledge and lead to a liberalisation of ideals in closed societies. As a worldwide event, sport draws active involvement and mass viewership, both creating the sub-cultural features of such sport (Gratton & Henry 2001). Commonly, scholars give much attention to the economic effects of major sporting events, thus studies in this field is scarce. According to Hall (1992), social impacts is “the manner in which tourism and travel affect changes in the collective and individual value systems, behaviour patterns, community structures, lifestyle and quality of life” (as cited in Robinson et al. 2011, 155). ...Show more
Impact of Major Sporting Events on Host Communities Introduction Nowadays, numerous cities, regions, or countries are making an effort capitalising on major sport events to realise planned corporate goals. The underlying principle of this effort is that sports events have the capacity to create exceptional opportunities for major political, social, and economic gains for the host city, region, and country…
Economists are currently at odds with regard to the actual impact of major sporting events on the local economies of hosting cities, communities, or countries. This disagreement arises from the fact that there is no single, best method to carry out economic impact analysis.
The government first recognized the value of event planning in 1915 while professional events as they are today in the UK took shape in the late 1950s and the early 1960s (Bowdin et al., 2006: 32). In the 1950s, there was an increase in the number of communities from South Asia and West Indies and events were organized to commemorate their cultures before the second period festivals culture emerged (Bowdin et al., 2006: 32).
14 The event has a global appeal, attracting thousands of participants and billions of viewers across the world (Zhang and Zhao 2007 p. 27). Focussing on Beijing Olympic Games in 2008, this paper affirms that hosting the event benefits tourism, the economy, urban growth and the environment of the host city in measurable ways, before, during and after the event, and brings further intangible and long term benefits to the host population.
This research will cover the background of volunteer tourism ,the various types of volunteer tourism in existence, the various methods and ways that have been used to carry out this practice as well as its impact on the host communities; both positive and negative impacts.
For a volunteer, the motivation and rewards are intrinsic. Therefore, volunteer tourists are individuals who, in an organised and planned manner, choose to tour countries, regions and communities, which require services of these volunteers. Since the 1980s, there has been a rapid increase in volunteer tourism and it has gone on to take several forms such as cultural tourism, alternative tourism, eco-tourism, charity tourism, moral tourism, responsible tourism, social tourism, serious leisure and others.
At first it is important to note that any major sporting event such as Olympics, Soccer World Cup, Cricket World Cup, Wimbledon etc. create a stir in nationalism. Such feelings are not visible in domestic games where victory of one team is one fan's joy and another's gloom and thus the overall mood in the country may not be the same.
It provides a way where individuals can share intentions, meanings and emotions although; their oral languages might be incomprehensible. It might also give an important support to individual interaction for those with special requirements that makes other ways of communication challenging.