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Clean Water Act (CWA) by EPA Your complete name Institutional Affiliation Abstract This paper explores Clean Water Act initiated by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1948, modified and expended in 1972 and 1977. The 1972 legislation specified programs for water quality improvement…
In United States, nearly all manufacturing companies discharge their wastewater or storm water. Such emissions and discharges are extensively regulated by EPA in collaboration with federal and state authorities through programs of standards and permits under the Clean Water Act (CWA) (Garrett, 2003, p.1). Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Clean Water Act is the primary law that regulates pollution aspects of nation's surface waters. First enacted in 1948, it was modified by 1972 amendments. The 1972 legislation specified programs for water quality improvement. Since its enactment, the law is continuously modified and implemented by industries and municipalities. Congress made amendments in 1977, brushed up some parts in 1981, and expanded the law with further amendments in 1987 (Copeland, 2010, p.1).This paper briefly explores the Clean Water Act initiated by EPA. Background During late 1950s and 1960s, water pollution control programs were based on four laws that modified the 1948 statute. Primarily, these laws addressed federal assistance to municipal dischargers and federal enforcement programs. Within this time period, federal role and jurisdiction was expanded to navigable interstate and intrastate waters. In 1965, water quality standards were incorporated in the law, requiring states to establish interstate water standards which would be utilized to assess pollution levels and control requirements. ...
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