The essay "Fashion Textile Futures Theory" draws a distinction between clothing and fashion. Clothes are the media through which cultural ideas flow. Clothing helps us to order our cultural categories; class, status, gender and cultural principles i.e. values, belief and ideas are determined which we hold regarding our world. It is pertinent here to define Culture which may be defined as the way of life, with share abilities, habits, beliefs and customs of people or social groups. It is the entire complex of learned behavior, transmitted to subsequent generations in an ever changing cumulative dynamic way. We may call the artifacts; consumed and produced in a culture, a material culture. These artifacts are produced to express the unexpressed beliefs since the artifacts are understood in particular culture. Artifacts are unconscious and unintentional medium of attitudes, values and beliefs. But Prown says that artifacts are intentional expressions of an aesthetic which is equal in meaning and important to the unintentional expression.4 Cordwell and Schwarz noted that clothes were ignored in the studies of material culture. But later on it was realized that clothes; artifacts, are associated with ‘a complex sentiments’ and it channels the emotions and helps people to move in a ‘culturally appropriate manners. To Schwarz clothing has a symbolic role to play more than any other material objects. It arbitrates the relationship among nature, people and their ‘socio-culture environment....
M. J. & Gruel. L.M. (1981). The Second Skin. Boston: Houghton - Mifflin.
4 Prown. Jules D. et al (1985). "Material cultural studies: A Symposium" Material culture.
5 Cunningham. Anne. Patricia. Lab.Voso.Susan. (1991) Understanding Dress and Popular Culture. Bowling Green State University: Popular Press
To Schwarz clothing has a symbolic role to play more than any other material objects. It arbitrates the relationship among nature, people and their 'socio-culture environment.'6
The Study of Blue Denim jeans helps us to understand the statement of Schwarz and particularly his emphasis on the symbolic role of clothing. Blue jeans are all pervasive on the scene of cultural history of America since 130 years. During that period of time jeans exemplified different meanings and messages for the society. It became a symbol of rebellion, an outlet of personal freedom and creativity then it serves as an icon of awareness of fashion also. Change in the style of jeans is actually a sign of change in manners and attitude in the American society. These changes are the subtle but accurate barometers of trends in contemporary popular culture.7
In 1960s the concept of "Jeaning of America" came on the surface to give a jean new role in the American society. It was a great shift in the attitude of the society and particularly in youth when the new clique of rebels; "beatnik", the bohemians, started putting on black sweaters with blue jeans as daily wear to represent the urban intellectual, a dissenter, to rebel against the 'conformist society of the day.' To wear plain jeans and dark colors was to reject the more-is-better, new-is-better mentality of the Organization Man World. 8 By 1967, the youth dominated the sub-culture. Who had