The first microscopes enabled the human eye to magnify an object up to 20-30 times but today a microscope can magnify an object up to 1500 times. With the invention of microscopes, the vision changed and it opened the doors to many other associated fields of inventions (Wilkin, 1911). Micro organisms were studied and cellular structures were discovered. Biological uses include tissue and cell analysis to examine for any diseases in the body, whereas in modern times, it is also used to see finger prints for evidence collection at a crime sight. Not only this, several enhancements were made to the original microscope including Compound Microscopes, Transmission Electron Microscopes, Scanning Electron microscopes and Dissection Microscopes (Strain, 2006).
Later, when the curiosity to know more about the universe around us grew, telescopes were invented which changed the lives drastically. As the first step, the depressions on the surface of moon were noticed, the sunspots, the rings of the Saturn and the moons of the Jupiter were discovered using a telescope. Not only this but scientific reasoning methods, mathematical laws and logics were applied to understand how the universe works, which laid the foundations of modern astronomy. An exceptional discovery was made by Galileo about the surface of moon which was previously considered as smooth (Wilkin, 1911). He discovered that there are dark areas and shadows on the moon which change in accordance to the positioning of the sun. He concluded that these shadows were the craters and mountains on the surface of moon. Another stunning discovery was made by the use of telescopes that there are four large moons around Jupiter which also rotate. Later, Sir Issac Newton proposed the usage of a curved mirror instead of glass lens in the telescope. Soon after, in the seventeenth century binoculars were designed based on the idea of telescopes.
Camera Obscura (the dark chamber) was used