Social Factors – the rise of the Industrial Revolution with the invention of the steam engine in many ways brought about disruptive changes to society, in which the previous agricultural or feudal system gave way to industrialisation due to a new economic system of capitalism. It gave rise to urban slums where family members were separated, an exploitation of labour and the rise of a new wealthy class of capitalists, in addition to landed aristocracy and royalty. Economic Factors – capitalism is enhanced by the new economic system of industrialisation, in which goods were mass produced for consumption, unlike the previous production system of individually-crafted products made by skilled artisans and their guilds. The sheer number of new products on the market required a new way of marketing these products to people and one way to distinguish one product from another is the use of graphic design to entice buyers.The mass production of goods caused the birth of graphic design as a form of advertisement, but this kind of new art was considered a poor imitation of the earlier Gothic style of designs. The Gothic or medieval style was more detailed and thought to be real works of art borne out of the dedicated and loving work of artisans who produce these art works for only few people but not for the mass market. The Gothic style, according to Pugin, represented religion and it was also considered to be English, in contrast to the classical style which he thought as pagan and worldly.