Ultrasound artifacts are therefore sonographic display errors which are caused by complicated physical interactions between the ultrasound and the human tissue; issues in the limits of the ultrasound process also impact on the manifestation of the artifact. Failing to detect these artifacts can cause confusion and mistakes in diagnosis. Ensuring effective detection and interpretation of artifacts as well as the physical elements of their origin will allow identification, as well as promote correct diagnosis. In other words, the accurate interpretation of artifacts would likely help establish the correct diagnosis and provide effective tools for the identification of images within the imaging field (Hoff, et.al., 1989). The ultrasound machine has different assumptions in its image generation. These assumptions include the fact that ultrasound beams only traverse a straight line via a fixed rate of attenuation; the speed of the sound in all the body tissues measured at 1540 m/s; the beam is very thin, with most of its echoes coming from its central axis; and the impact of the reflector is based on the time which the sound would travel from the transducer to the reflector and back again.
There are different types of artifacts. First, the reverberation artifact is seen when the ultrasound is constantly reflected within two different reflective surfaced (George, 2012). Second, is the mirror image artifact. This is a kind of reverberation artifact seen at highly reflective systems like the lungs and descending aorta.