The history of Roman Empire was divided into two distinctive eras. The first era was known as the Republican period where the origins of their architecture can be traced to the Etruscans who followed the Greek and the Phoenician traditions, building large temples to honor their Gods. The second era of their architecture was started in 27 BC which is considered as a period of the Empire. Their empire covered many areas across the Europe and these countries consisted of a vast number of people with different cultures and traditions. So, the architecture of Roman Empire turned eclectic (consisting elements of the diversity of regional cultures and traditions). History of Roman Architecture: Romans adopted the style of architecture from Greeks but some styles of buildings were of Etruscan period. Romans and Greeks used five different styles of buildings from pre 500 BC to the first century AD. They include three orders of architecture which Romans took from Greeks which are Doric, Ionic and Corinthian and then added Composite as their own style. The Classical architecture of Rome and Greece came in different periods and with different types of design and style. The first period was the Doric stage and buildings built in this style usually had no base and this stage was before the 5th century BC. The second stage was the Ionic stage which was visibly more complex than the Doric style. The next architectural stage was the Corinthian style and it originated after the 5th BC. Then the fourth style was the Tuscan column which was introduced by Etruscans. No examples of this type of architecture are present today. The last architectural style was the Composite order which was first seen in 82 AD on the arch of Titus. This form was the most complex as it used the arches in an organized manner. By using the Composite order of architecture, Romans used their skills of concrete in developing architectural figures like the arch, vault and the dome. Pantheon was the best example of domed buildings which was built by Marcus Agrippa in the last century and it was later refurbished by Hadrian. The building was actually built as a temple for Romans to worship their gods but later on was changed into a Church. This building is famous for being one of the oldest and largest of the buildings. Monuments and Infrastructure in the Roman Architecture In ancient times the monuments were of great significance and the Romans were specially known for their monuments. In the Republican period a monument known as the Forum was quite famous for the political activities that went throughout the place. The monuments in those times were built in such a fashion that people used to come and visit them frequently. These monuments became a symbol of architecture for the Romans later on. Infrastructure was also an area of interest for the Romans as they developed their city walls well before the 4th century. The water supply and the network of aqueducts were also famous for their linearity. Roads were also developed from such an early time and were used accordingly by the people for their needs. Thus Roman architecture became well known for its integrity and smoothness from the very beginning (Grundmann & Furst 1998). Religious Buildings: The layouts of Roman temples were highly influenced
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Roman Empire Introduction: Romans were known as the masters of Architecture due to their extra ordinary skills in construction and engineering. They invented concrete which resulted in different kinds and styles of architecture including forts, villas, temples, towns, bath, great wall and roads, giving a new look to Europe forever…
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