Both pieces are white and have columns and arches, and are decorated by sculptures. Similarly, they both are examples of representational art. However, the subject matters of the two pieces are different. The Temple of Athena’s purpose is to help the Greeks in war, while the Arch of Constantine celebrates the war that has already been won.
The Temple of Athena had a religious function of worshiping the goddess of victory. The statue of Athena inside the Temple held a pomegranate in one hand, which was a symbol of fertility, and a helmet, a symbol of war, in the other hand. In addition, Athena had no wings, as usual. She was depicted without wings in order not to ever leave the city, as the people believed (Ancient-Greece.org, 2013).
On contrast, the Arch of Constantine had a social and political function of celebrating, immortalizing and commemorating Constantine’s victory over his enemy. The use of materials from the monuments of Marcus Aurelius, Hadrian and Trajan, who were considered good emperors, also created positive associations between them and