In the pre-production stage, the cinematographer conducts research, selects, and approves locations, props, equipment, crew, set colours, textures and shoot tests. The DOP designates the filters and other photographic controls to be followed during filming (BSC, 2011). Since the production designer is responsible for creating the physical and visual appearance of the film, they work together to generate the set design sketches, special effects, lighting, costumes, props, make-up and hair. The production budget, filming schedules, and key shots are also determined, with assistance from the Director.
During the shooting stage, the cinematographer plans the shooting order for activities and directs the trials of scenes to be shot for the day. He designs lighting that matches the locations and actors with the story. It is in this stage that different lighting techniques are employed to set mood, direct viewer attention and provide information about the scenes by use of equipment such as table lamps, bulbs, candles, filters and stage light. The manner in which light falls on face of the actor or lights a landscape or an interior space can create drama, mood, and excitement for the audience. Lower lighting and shadows can be used to show darker moods like horror and sadness or eerie and haunting looks while brighter lighting to show happiness. Soft lighting can depict romantic and heartwarming tone or set a nostalgic tone by use of candle light. Natural lighting can be used to replicate the actual environment of the scene. Furthermore, lighting between scenes may alter as the film progresses to communicate changes in the characters’ emotions (BSC, 2011). The cinematographer may employ high contrast lighting techniques by combining harsh streaks of light with bold, black streaks to create a mood of tension and anxiety. The production designer has to be