The function of the object: the masks were worn during ceremonies such as circumcision, initiation and funeral ceremonies. They were a sign of authority and were also worn by the Bwadi ya Kifwebe association which was a policing society that provided control and behavior in the community.
The function of the object: these sculptures were made to complement the reliquary containers and were ancestral representations that were memorized and addressed in times of need through relics that were preserved in the attached container (Kowalski, pg12).
The function of the object: the object was used in Mukudj dances that were commissioned by the community leaders in memory of a great person or the visit of an honorable individual in the community (Bingham, pg33).
The function of the object: they were placed on the top of the baskets containing the bones of the ancestors to act as guardians of the bones and at the same time ward off the evil spirits (Dowling, pg50).
Kowalski, Marek Arpad. Art and history: incidental notes on carvings of the Fang tribe in the collections of the National Museum of Ethnography in Warsaw. Warsaw: National Museum of Ethnography in Warsaw, 19751976.