ype designers have gone further to categorize the typographic variations in letterforms like x-height, length of ascenders and descenders and stroke weight that contribute to functionality, clarity and aesthetics of the design (Raizman 194).
The humanist (Venetian) faces of 15th and 16th centuries emulated the classical calligraphy. The humanist typefaces were designed to imitate Italian Renaissance handwriting and the types use bracketed serifs while letters are wide. The old style (Garalde) was designed developed between 15th and 17th century. These types have moderate contrast and entail rounded serifs and rounded letters that enhance readability. The old style has small serifs and small x-heights and minimal variations of thick and thin strokes. The stress is diagonal and tops of lowercase ascenders often will exceed the height of the capital letters (Raizman 195).
The transitional classification has sharper serifs and was introduced in mid 18th century by John Baskerville. The mechanical-like structure ensures these types are reverse and stippled thus looking excellent on smooth paper. The modern typefaces were designed by Didone in late 18th century and early 19th century and include straight serifs, and sharp contrast from thick to thin strokes (Felici 53). The advancement in typography was occasioned by improvements in technology such as printing and binding of papers thus making it possible to develop type styles with fine hairlines and strong vertical emphasis (Felici 78). The Egyptian or slab-serifs (19th century) has heavy serifs and is mainly used for decorations since it provides high legibility (Cullen 145). The slab serif is useful in posters and flyers due to bold printing types and strong, square finishing strokes that capture the viewers’ attention. The decorative typefaces (19th to 20th century) are mainly used in posters and billboards since legibility wanes if used in small point sizes. They are designed for large point sizes in order to