An analysis of the Western capitalist societies and their changes was developed by a German-American group of theorists known as the Frankfurt School (Adorno 43). They were among the earliest producers of accounts in social theories on the significance of mass communication and culture in social domination and reproduction (Buck-Morss 12). They also generated the initial models of critical studies analyzing the procedures of cultural production and the reception of the audience. The studio audience is aware of the position from which the act may not be detected immediately as illusionary, but such a chance is not there for a scene of a movie in the process of being shot. It possesses the illusionary nature of a second degree that results from cutting. The mechanical equipment provided by industrialization has infiltrated deeply enough into reality such that its pure aspect is released from the foreign essence of the equipment through the shooting procedure. The combination of emotional and visual enjoyment characterizes the progressive reaction of the audience. The feature of equipment free reality became the optimum level of artifice. Immediate reality became a priced element as technology advanced. In the 1930s, a critical approach was developed by the Frankfurt school towards communication and cultural studies. It combined textual analysis and analysis of ideological and social effects. To this end, they came up with the phrase culture industry to refer to the industrialization process of culture produced in mass as well as the commercial necessity that propelled the system. Theorists who criticized mass mediated cultural works in the perspective of industrial production claimed they portrayed similar features as all other mass produced products. However, the culture industries of the Frankfurt school held a specific role of providing ideologically legitimate theories of the capitalist societies’ existence and integrating art into its people’s lifestyles (Buck-Morss 16). With industrialization bringing forth more versatile cameras, the difference between the works of a painter and a cameraman were also understood on different levels. While there exists a natural distance between a painter’s work and reality, a cameraman can penetrate scenes more deeply. The painter’s product may be termed as a total product, while the cameraman’s is made up of multiple segments amassed through a new law. Therefore, after industrialization, present day man finds the reality represented by film superior to that portrayed by a painter. The detailed penetration of reality mechanical equipment is capable of achieving offers the reality in an aspect that contemporary man feels entitled to demand from artwork (Hopkinson 27). As the Frankfurt school promoted the mass and homogeneous production of media through its culture industry model, more models were developed including those by Walter Benjamin and Ernst Bloch (Fabian and Adam 19). However, the culture industry articulated the significant social roles media culture played by providing a commercially and technically advanced model. It played a key role in ideological reproduction and how it is perceived today to serve the needs of individuals and corporate interests. Question Two Although the camera obscura’s characteristics were observed in the Western world and China in the 16th century, the electronic and printed forms of images produced by cameras became a common and widely used way of arousing emotions and
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Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Design and Media Art Question One Shooting a film, particularly one with sound, provides an unimaginable spectacle that has evolved with industrialization. Mechanical reproduction has changed the audience’s perception and reaction to art (Benjamin 1)…
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