He went ahead to describe that this ideology of survival of humans was linked to as capitalism. Marxism described capitalism as a notion where there existed labour division among people and class separation was existence in the manner that where was a significant difference in power and wealth. As a result, Marxism theory was based on capitalism and he linked this aspect to explain how the society works in a cyclic manner. According to Birchall (2008) when Karl Marx theory of capitalism was related to art, capitalism sought to create a value of any object in terms of money, so art was no exception. With that, art was also reduced to consequent value such that, even if the piece of art was regarded as high art, according to the capitalist theory by Karl Marx , the art definitely had a price value that was attached to it. According to Freeland (2001) Sigmund Freud spoke about art as a way to express “unconscious feelings” that the artist may even lack (p. 157). He explained that,
“[The artist] is urged on by instinctual needs...; he longs to attain honour, power, riches, fame and the love of women; but he lacks the means of achieving these gratifications. So like any other with an unsatisfied longing, he turns away from reality and transfers all his interest, and all his libido, on to the creation of his wishes in the life of fantasy, from which the way might readily lead to neurosis” (p. 157). This can be elaborated to mean that Sigmund viewed art as a matter that was related to an urge to produce art and get wealthy and famous but not as a means to express to the society.
Discuss how Postmodernism can help in our understanding of 'popular' film Postmodernism in the film “The Matrix Trilogy” Baudrillard Jean was a philosopher who came up with theories related to postmodernism in art and the impact that this art had. Some of his works revealed aspects such as "Simulacra and Simulations". According to Baudrillard (1994), "the simulacrum is never that which conceals the truth--it is the truth which conceals that there is none. The simulacrum is true” (p. 1). He talked about the presence and use of simulation and simulacra in art such that it would relate to reality. He described it as the “generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyper real”. He went ahead to describe that a lot of models have been created and simulated in a manner that would look real without doubt whereas “the real is produced from miniaturized cells, matrices, and memory banks, models of control-and it can be reproduced an infinite number of times from these” (p.2). When Baudrillard Jean stated this, he meant that simulation could be produced from aspects such as matrices and the output could also be manipulated and repeated over and over again until the abstraction of the real object has been produced by the simulation vector. As a result, no clear distinction could be made between the real object or image and the false one as they both appeared inspiringly similar. When this methodology of "Simulacra and Simulations" was translated to the film, “The Matrix”