All we have now is an immense collection of anthropological evidence of the lives that existed thousands of years ago in the form of human skeletons, mummies, broken bones and ancient campfires. Consequently, such kinds of material evidence are significantly important for anthropologists during the reconstruction of anthropological analysis of the particular area as well as in determination of the length of time they have been in existent. The arrival of the Spanish explorers into the greater Texas region during the 1500s however brought a new historical era characterized by written materials, drawings, pictures and other more accurate sources that are significant to historians and anthropologists.
Generally, the previous forensic anthropological analysis of material evidence in the greater Texas region has revealed a mixture fascinating historical accounts as well as some painful recount of wars the Native Indians and the Europeans during the arrival of the European immigrants. For example after the arrival of the Spaniards in the area around Texas in the 16th century, a number of brutal cultural conflicts were witnessed between the Natives and the Spanish immigrants some of which resulted in near decimation of the Native populations in the region. Forensic anthropology seeks to identify and interpret the human skeletons as well as the accompanying artifacts using various anthropological techniques. This paper discusses the anthropological analysis and identification of three partial human skeletons as well as three artifacts that were found along with them in Spanish Fort, Montague County, Texas. The analysis of the three artifacts One of the artifacts that were found together with human remains at the site was a long but thin Bird point arrowhead, which was approximately 2 inches long. We deduced that native Indians who used to inhabit the Northern Texas region probably used these kinds of artifacts to hunt wild animals. This is because some of the Bird point artifacts discovered at the site were found in the decayed carcasses of bison and deer. Bird point artifacts were not only used by the Native Indians for hunting but were also occasionally used as weapons during the frequent wars and conflicts. This was particularly before the invention of bows and arrows. The Native Indians probably placed the bird points to their spears to make them effective tools for both warfare and hunting. Another important artifact that was discovered was an Asphaultum hafting. This artifact was identified by the characteristic black color of its residues. It is speculated that during the prehistoric times, the Native inhabitants of Northern Texas to mould some form of projectile weapons and hunting tools as well as to make a waterproof inner coat for their clay pots used Ashphaultum. Finally, the depression also contained an artifact known as Waco sinker. Although it is difficult to pinpoint the specific use of this prehistoric artifact, it is widely believed that the native Indians as bola stones or sinker weights used Waco sinkers during hunting. For example, the Waco sinkers may have been used by hurling them at the hunted animals and the two stones would then wrap around the animal and pull it to the ground. The close proximity of the artifacts with the discovered graves suggested that they may have been intentionally buried along with the bodies as votive offerings, grave goods or as hoards (Inca rebellion Video, 2007).The artifacts are therefore valuable hints at the culture of the dead individuals, their occupation as well their ...
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