A) According to Charles Handy and his "motivation calculus theory", successful performance of any organization is based on "needs", "results" and "effectiveness" (Handy, 1993). The study of motivation calculus is concerned, basically, with why people behave in a certain way. Applied to Apple Corporation, motivation calculus can be described as the direction and persistence of action. The "needs' include individual characteristics, internal and external environment, and influences. It is concerned with why people choose a particular course of action in preference to others, and why they continue with a chosen action, often over a long period, and in the face of difficulties and problems. This type of communication provides additional channels of communication and provides a means of motivation, for example, through status, social interaction, variety in routine jobs, and informal methods of work.
According to Handy, results imply the role of additional efforts and outcomes. In Apple, additional efforts help the company to increase revenue through continuous optimization of production. Handy relates motivation to 'psychological' rewards such as the opportunity to use employees' ability, a sense of challenge and achievement, receiving appreciation, positive recognition, and being treated in a caring and considerate manner. ...Show more