Right from the early eighties until now, every organisation is either planning, executing or just conducting and evaluating one change programme or the other. It is either the good old TQM, Business process re-engineering, restructuring, right sizing, rationalization, downsizing, technological realignment, empowerment, team building, culture change, mergers, acquisition, divestitures, diversification; all sorts of cost contentment measures and other esoteric types.
It is an intentional and goal oriented programme.
Change can also be unplanned. This is when an organisation is forced by circumstances to change some or all of its processes, strategies, systems or any aspect of its operations in order to remain in operation or perform better. In this case change is reactive.
Apart from whether change is planned or unplanned, there are also different perspectives on the nature of change process. The planned approach assumes that the change process is linear and carefully crafted with several identifiable steps, which follow, in a sequential order. Another perspective, however believes that this linear, orderly fashion does not suit the complex and rapidly changing environment in which businesses operate.
There is the issue of the locus of emphasis in initiating and implementing change programmes. Three schools of though have also emerged in this regard. There is the Individual Perspective School which believes that the locus of change should be the individual. ...