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Chemistry
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...Chemistry Question One A and B Properties of gold, cube Density of gold = 19.3g/ml A Mass 11.439g B Volume of water 5.1ml With gold cube = 5.7ml a) The graduated cylinder has an accuracy of 0.1 ml, the electronic balance has an accuracy of 0.0001 g. according to the measurements given on volume they are accurate according to the minimum readable measurement given by the cylinder. The measurement given on the mass seems not to be accurate because the minimum measure of mass according to the apparatus is 0.0001, therefore if the measure was exactly 11.439 g then this should have been written as 11.4390 g. b) Volume of the gold cube 5.7 – 5.1 = 0.6ml c) Density and mass find...
Chemistry
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...Chemistry Abnormalities in Bipolar Disorder. Durand, V. M. & Barlow, D. H. 2000. Abnormal Psychology: An Introduction. Scarborough, Ontario: Wadsworth. Glazer WM, Sonnenberg JG, Reinstein M (2005), A novel, "point of care" test for lithium levels. Presented at the 158th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. Atlanta; May 26. Goodwin FK, Fireman B, Simon GE et al. (2003), Suicide risk in bipolar disorder during treatment with lithium and divalproex. JAMA 290(11):1467-1473 Dunner, D.L. (1998). Lithium carbonate: Maintenance studies and consequences of withdrawal. Journal of Clinical Psyciatry, 59, 48-58. ... Behavior and moods of a person could be correlated to chemical activities that...
Chemistry
6 pages (1500 words) , Lab Report
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...Chemistry. New York: Freeman. Harris, D. C. (2006). Qualitative chemical analysis. New York: Freeman Silbey, R. J. (2004). Physical chemistry. Chicago: Wiley. Garland, C. (2008). Experiments in Physical Chemistry. New York: Wiley and Sons.... Lab report: Ionic equilibria (Word count: 1456) Laboratory report: Ionic equilibria Aim of the experiment. To carry out an acid-base pH titration, plot a suitable graph and determine the concentration of the ethanoic acid solution. Introduction. According to Brønsted-Lowry theory an acid can be defined as a "proton donor" while a base can be called a "proton acceptor." Acids are in most cases divided into groups such as "strong" and "weak." One measure of the most co...
Chemistry
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...Chemistry Describe the configuration of an atom. An atom is composed of a nucleus. The atom also possesses atomic orbitals and energy levels which are made up of electrons. 2.) Explain the process of radioactive decay which takes place on (^14)(^6)C or what is known as carbon 14. A radio carbon such as carbon 14 will undergo a process of electron mission, therefore losing energy and moving ultimately to a place of chaos or entropy. The following formula will illustrate the radioactive beta decay which will act on carbon 14: ^14_6C------> ^14_7N+e 3). Utilize the S P D orbital system to describe Potassium. An orbital is essentially a theory of something rather than an actual something... Describe...
Chemistry
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...Chemistry: Analysis of Oxygen (O2) Introduction Oxygen is a chemical element that largely forms part of the atmospheric and is widely recognized with the sustenance of life and survival of organisms. It has a formula of O­2. As a chemical element, this substance has an atomic number of 8 and belongs to the chalcogen group on the periodic table; thus, making it build and possess certain significant characteristics for its operations such as being a highly reactive non-metallic element. Subsequently, oxygen is widely used as an oxidizing agent through its readiness to form compounds (in most cases oxides), with most of the atmospheric elements (Bauer, Birk & Pamela 145-149... such as: Steel...
Chemistry
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...chemistry of ILs and cations contribute towards the variable physical properties and stability of ILs (Bӧhme 2006). Ionic salts can be simple salts i.e. made up of one type of anion and cation or binary ionic liquids which are a mixture of two salts with varying melting points depending on their composition. Image: Wikipedia. Some cations used in ionic liquids Applications of ionic liquids Ionic liquids are used to substitute... Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents Ionic liquids are a group of organic salts that exist as liquids at temperatures lower than 100˚C. They have low vapor pressures and are chemically and thermally stable. They have attracted a lot of attention recently as they emit no volatile...
Chemistry
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...Chemistry: Q1. Arsenic sulphide has 70% arsenic mass, with the remainder being sulphur. Use the % composition of arsenic and sulphur to obtain the empirical formula of the compound Sulphur percentage is 30% and 70% arsenic therefore the ratio is 3:7 This means that the number of atoms for Sulphur = 3 Arsenic = 7 Therefore the empirical formula will be Ar7S3 (s) Q 2 Sample mass/g Temperature / C Pressure/ mm Hg volume / cm 0.345 650 760 60.5 0.345 1573 760 242.0 Use above table for the questions below. (i) Using... ,...
Chemistry
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...chemistry that holds till today. The Markonikov Rule states that when a hydrogen halide (Hydrochloric acid, HCl being an example) reacts with an asymmetrically substituted alkene the hydrogen attaches itself to the carbon atom that has the larger number of its hydrogen atoms substituted. The halogen automatically attaches itself to the carbon atom having the least number of its hydrogens substituted. An example of such an addition reaction... Topic – Insert & Affiliaton) Question The n-butane molecule is represented by the following: Scientists have suggested a number of ways that organic molecules may be represented. Among them are the ‘Sawhorse’, ‘Newman’, ‘Fischer’, ‘Haworth’, and ‘Natta’...
Chemistry
1 pages (250 words) , Download 1 , Coursework
...Chemistry for Biologists: Enzymes. [online] Rsc.org. Available at: http://www.rsc.org/Education/Teachers/Resources/cfb/enzymes.htm [Accessed 10 May. 2014]. Joachim Weber. (2014). ATP... Access to Higher Education Unit Biochemistry LO3 (Enzymes), Criteria 3 to 3.4 To achieve level 3, answer all questions correctly. Level 3(Assessment Criterion 3.1) Q1 Almost all chemical reactions in living organisms depend on enzymes. a) Give a brief definition of an enzyme. An enzyme is an organic molecule that acts as a catalyst for many biological reactions. Most are protein in nature but some are RNA in nature. They are highly specific and sensitive (Klaus Buchholz, 2012) to the substrates and conditions in which the...
Chemistry.
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...Chemistry A; Toxic wastes: Hazardous wastes are poisonous byproducts of manufacturing, farming, septic systems, construction, automotive garages, laboratories, hospitals, and other industries. The waste may be liquid, solid, or sludge and contain chemicals, heavy metals, radiation, dangerous pathogens, or other toxins. Even households generate hazardous waste from items such as batteries, used computer equipment, and leftover paints or pesticides. The waste can harm humans, animals, and plants if they encounter these toxins buried in the ground, in stream runoff, in groundwater that supplies drinking water, or in floodwaters, as happened after Hurricane Katrina. Some...
Chemistry
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...CHEMISTRY WEEK Q This is a good advice because it will help in achieving accuracy and hence uncertainties in measurement are avoided. Q.2. These data are in accordance with the multiple proportion which states that when two elements combines together to form more than one compound, there is a simple numerical ratio between the different masses of one element which will combine with a fixed mass of the other. R1 Q1 R2 Q2 14.00g 3.00g 7.00g 4.50g 7.00g 1.50g The mass of Q combining with the mass... Isaac Mutinda Order: 127810...
CHEMISTRY
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...Chemistry in the Drug Selection Process: A Case Study,’ American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, Vol. 62, accessed 12 May 2008, MedicineNet, 2005, Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland) Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment, MedicineNet, Inc. accessed 10 May 2008,
Chemistry
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...Chemistry Institute a) What is the chemical symbol of arsenic, and what group/family does it belong to? The symbol of Arsenic is ‘As’ and it belongs to group 5 (also known as group 15 or pnictogens or p-block) of elements (Meyer, n.d.). b) Solve for the minimum volume of soil that will be excavated in cubic yards? Assumption: The value is taken correct to 3 significant figures. c) If each dump truck can transport 18 cubic yards, determine how many dump trucks loads will be transported? For calculation purposes, add a 15% fluff factor (add to the volume that will be transported). d) If the bulk density of soil is 1350 kg/m3 (84.3 lb/ft3), solve for the weight of the...
Chemistry
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...chemistry by Morrison and Boyd, third edition.... Q1. MnF64- ↓ ‘_’ ↓ ↓ ↓ Q2. V (CO) 6 ↓↑ ↓↑ ↓↑ ↓↑ Q3. The feature of binding that explains the strong Fe-CO bond is due to strong Ỏ-bonding that is as a result of electron donation from CO to Fe in the haemoglobin. The metal requires at least four CO ligands to become electronically saturated. In fact Fe (CO) 5 is a stable form. Q4. NO+ ligand would form a bent i.e. V-shaped geometry in a metal complex. More electrons are pulled to N in the radical hence the metallic ion would be attracted to the partially negatively charged N atom. The lone pair electron in the N atom cause attraction of positively charged metal and O ions towards the center resulting in V-...
Chemistry chemistry
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...CHEMISTRY QUESTIONS Presented Intramolecular forces operate within the molecules or fundamental units of a substance. This would include the attraction between positive and negative ions in a crystal of an ionic compound, the covalent bonds in a molecular substance as well as the covalent bonds linking atoms in a network structure, such as that of carbon (diamond).Metallic bonds are also classified as intramolecular forces (Frederick, 1979, P.63)Intermolecular forces operate between, rather than within, the molecules of a covalent substance. This would include the attractions exerted by one molecule of a molecular substance on another, such as the force of attraction...
Medicine. Chemistry
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...Chemistry The topic that I will discuss about in this paper is medicine and I will show how medicine is related to chemistry. Medicines are drugs used for treating illness, especially in liquid form. (Nelapa, Rolfle and Harper, 2006) When medicine is being discovered, a lot of chemistry is used for example the first step involves the identification of new active compounds called hits, which are found by screening many compounds for the desired biological properties. (Nelapa, Rolfle and Harper, 2006). Here, compound is taken to mean chemical compound which means it's a chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining... ...
About chemistry
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...Chemistry of Wine Wine has been present in our society for thousands of years, and has been produced from cultivated grapes since 4000BC. Romans and Greek empires have brought the wine culture to Europe from the East, while Columbus brought it to the New World. Grapes have become a very important part of wine production, and with more than 5000 varieties being cultivated, it is very crucial that the process of wine making be as versatile as possible. Chemistry has been a part in the production of wine, and in its research and development. Wine makers use chemistry in order to bring out and make the best tasting and quality in wine. This paper discusses the role of chemistry in wine... Your Full The...
Physical chemistry
8 pages (2000 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...chemistry. Although scientists are on the look out for better industrial processes, there exist some processes that give high yield at optimum cost. The explanation for every chemical process used has its roots in physical chemistry - thermodynamics, chemical equilibrium, and structure. The objective of this study is to determine the role of two aspects of physical chemistry in the development of industrial processes: 1. Dynamic equilibrium... Chemical Industry: A Study On Application Of Le Chateliers Principle And Catalysis Introduction Innovations in science and technology since the early 20th Century have lead to the development of certain standard and efficient procedures in the field of industrial...
Clinical Chemistry
2 pages (500 words) , Lab Report
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...Chemistry" 224) 24. Crack is insoluble due to its neutral nature and non polar forces. Additional forces present in cocaine are dipole ion attractions which is absent in crack cocaine. Due to its ionic nature cocaine dissociates... 19. PH is the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. It is related to the concentration of Hydrogen ion (H in the solution. i.e the pH is:pH = 'log10 [H+]: "It is a measure of the activity of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. ("PH", 2006). 20. The creatinine blood test is done to detect health problems such as kidney damage. it is usually ordered along with a BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test to assess kidney function. Both are frequently ordered as part of either bas...
Chemistry assignment
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...Chemistry, eighth ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Gilbert, Thomas, Rein Kriss, and Geoffrey Davies. Chemistry: The Science in Context. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2003. Lewis, Rob, and Wynne Evans. Chemistry, third ed. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. "Visual Elements: Patterns in the Periodic Table." Royal Society of Chemistry. 20 July 2009 .... 1. Calculate the value of K at 25oC for the following reaction: 4NH3(g) + 7O2(g)  4NO2(g) + 6H2O(g) R is 0.08206Latm/Kmol and Kp is 9 x 103. Equilibrium constant K is written in terms of partial pressure equilibrium constant Kp as (Lewis): Kp = 1.9×103 atm-1 R = 0.08206Latm/Kmol T = (273+25)K = 298K n = number of product molecules - reacta...
Chemistry Today
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...CHEMISTRY TODAY Introduction Emily Draper, Tom Oliver and Dave Adams’ article “A Low Molecular Weight Hydrogel with Unusual Gel Ageing” describes the unique characteristics of the hydrogel element. The authors suggest that the gel is suitable because of its transparent and light weight that makes it non-reactive with the skin (Draper, McDonald and Adams 2015, n.p). The gel also contains a protective derivative that does not cause negative side effects to the ageing individuals. The most significant element of the hydogel is its capacity to disperse in water because of the absorbent nature. As a result, the article further highlights that the unusual gel ageing experience is achieved... TODAY...
Atmospheric Chemistry
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...Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a satellite mission launched on August 12, 2003 with the goal of taking necessary data and measurements to be the basis in drawing inferences and conclusions to the current state of the earth's stratosphere. The mission utilized two sophisticated instruments. The ACE-FTS (Fourier Transform Spectrometer) is used for detecting wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation and the MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) to measure ozone, nitrogen dioxide and aerosol extinction. The bottom line of the mission is to study Arctic zone depletion aside from understanding atmospheric phenomena... nowadays. In an...
Physical Chemistry
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...analysed oxides of tin and came to the realization that the masses of tin dioxide and tin (II) oxide were made up of either 78.7% Sn and 21.3 O, and 88.1% Sn and 11.9% O respectively. This motivated John... John Daltons Atomic Theory 11th March John Daltons Atomic Theory Introduction Before the advancement of the Atomic Theory by John Dalton, there was no way to explain what the composition of matter was. Democritus had first suggested that the atom existed, but no conclusive studies had been carried out to prove its existence (Vasilescu & Adrian-Scotto, 2010). There was also no way of explaining why different compounds reacted or combined in different proportions with various gases. Joseph Proust had...
Chemistry Essay
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...Chemistry, 164(1-3): 209-219. Wang, P., Zakeeruddin, S., Humphrey-Baker, R., Moser, J. and Gratzel, M. (2003) Advanced Materials Communications, 15: 2101-2103.... Energy Harvesting Introduction Dye solar cells were first developed in 1991 by O'Regan and Gratzel and are designed to be both cost effective and efficient in harvesting of solar energy. There are three main features in a dye solar cell, which are that they are photoelectrochemical, nanoparticulate and dye-sensitized. The photoelectrochemical properties relate to the way in which charge separation occurs in the cell at the interface of the titanium film. The nanoparticulate property relates to the surface area of the titanium film being around ...
Analytical chemistry
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...Chemistry 707, pp 15–19.... Review al Affiliation Article Review Introduction The article d Differential pulse voltammetric determinationof Albendazole in pharmaceutical tablets using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode by Lourencao, Baccarin, Medeiros, Rocha-Filho & Fatibello-Filho (2013) discusses the use of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method on Albendazole (ABZ) in anthelminthic pharmaceutical formulations and shows the results of this experiment. The Motivation / Objectives The motivations or objectives of the paper was to experiment and to report on the results of the use of a cathodically pretreated BDD electrode when used in the advancement of a sensitive method that c...
Clinical chemistry
19 pages (4750 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...Chemistry - Thyroid Function Patients suspected for hypothyroidism are requested for number of laboratory work ups to confirm the diagnosis and determine the underlying etiology. The first step in evaluating most thyroid diseases is to measure the TSH levels. Normal TSH levels rule out any primary cause of hypothyroidism but not the secondary causes. Elevated levels of TSH reflect a primary cause that requires further evaluation. Next step is to determine the unbound T4 levels as low levels of unbound T4 signify the presence of primary hypothyroidism. As autoimmune hypothyroidism is most common primary cause, detecting presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) will confirm... Clinical Chemistry...
Chemistry assignment
7 pages (1750 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...Chemistry: The central science. New York: Prentice Hall... FORMULAE/MOLES/MOLARITY FORMULAE & EQUATIONS Write formulae for the following compounds: a) magnesium chloride - d) sodium hydrogen carbonate -b) calcium carbonate - e) ammonium sulphate - c) potassium phosphate - f) barium nitrate - 2. Write equations for the following reactions, making sure that they are properly balanced. State symbols must be included. a) Potassium hydroxide and nitric acid react together in solution to form potassium nitrate solution and water. b) When heated in a stream of chlorine gas, aluminium metal forms solid, aluminium chloride. c) Lead nitrate and potassium bromide solutions react together to form a ...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry
30 pages (7500 words) , Essay
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...chemistry of the amino acid: generic (which refers to the 18 non-glycine non-proline amino acids), glycine, proline, and pre-proline (which refers to residues preceding a proline). The generic and proline Ramachandran plots are now well understood but the glycine and pre-proline Ramachandran plots are not. In the diagram above the white areas correspond to conformations where atoms in the polypeptide come closer than the sum of their van der Waals radii. These regions are sterically disallowed for all... 1. In which region of the electromagnetic spectrum do most drugs absorb? Define the term chromophore and describe the most common chromophore found in drug molecules. Most drugs absorb in the UV region ...
Alevel chemistry
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...Chemistry Resources: http://www.cheresources.com/ammonia.shtml... Haber Process Q1. Raw materials used and their sources The raw materials used in the manufacture of ammonia are nitrogen and hydrogen. Hydrogen isobtained by reacting methane with steam and thus creating carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The nitrogen is obtained from the air by fractional distillation, since the mixture of air consists of approximately 78% nitrogen. Q2. Equations and reactions involved The basic equation for the overall reaction is: N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) nitrogen + hydrogen at heat, pressure, catalyst = ammonia H = -92.4 kJ mol These other reactions take place to take out Hydrogen and Nitrogen. Hydrogen is ...
Chemistry Paper
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...Chemistry al Affiliation) Nuclear Test Ban The article talks about the formation of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty that imposed a ban for nuclear tests across the world. This was after a series of nuclear tests that lead to environmental pollution and even death. This ban ensured that there is proper handling of chemicals to reduce their exposure to the environment. The comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty was formed in September of 1996 when the states came together to ban the explosives that were mostly used as tests for nuclear explosives to environment. The first explosive to be tested was by the United States and was 1940s. The treaty had over 300 stations...
Food chemistry
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...chemistry of fatty acids involves either or both of these functional groups. 90% of the chemistry of fatty acids and their esters are concerned with the acid ester group, while the double is only to a minor extent. Interesterification is reactions in which fatty acid compound esterified to a glycerol backbone is reacted with fatty acids, alcohols or esters. When applied to oils and fats, it is a reaction between different triglycerides with rearrangements of the acryl groups within and between different triglycerides. The process does... Interestification and Partial Hydrogenation Interesterification and partial hydrogenation Fatty acids contain a carbonyl group and one or more double bonds. The...
Inorganic chemistry
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...CHEMISTRY Chemistry Assignment 11 February Part A Structure, Stereoisomerism, and Nomenclature Sketches of the transition metal complexes and their stereoisomers a) [Co(NH3)6]3+ NH3 NH3 3+ 3HN Co NH3 3HN NH3 Pentamminechlorocobalt (III). There are no other possible isomers Transition metals: the d group elements. b) [FeCl4]- Cl Cl - Fe Cl Cl c) [Co(NH3)4Cl2]+ Cl NH3 + Cl NH3 + Cl Co NH3 3HN Co NH3 H3N NH3 3HN Cl Cis... INORGANIC...
Chemistry Experiments
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...Chemistry ) of error and limitation of procedure leads this difference. Based on second experiment concentration of Cu ion was found to be 0.0027 in 25ml of solution. Both experiments gives Idea of water contain in hydrated Cuso4 crystal and make us understand how water plays important role in crystallization. Slight modification in above mention experiments... Assessed practical (Skill A and Skill E) Here two procedure were used to determine water contain of crystalline Cuso4. There are several advantages and disadvantages of these two methods but both are complemented to each other .Errors which were occurred during first experiments can be nullify by second experiments and combination of both...
Consumer Chemistry
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...Chemistry The advancements in molecular biology have led to the development of new plant breeding technology. Traditional plant breeding method has been practiced for a very long time, although it is currently being enhanced by DNA techniques that make it possible to introduce a wide range of valuable genes into the plant genome. This has led to the production of Genetically Modified Food. This paper provides arguments on the benefits, and health risk factors imposed by GM foods. The ever-growing world’s population and the problems of food crisis have called for better and increased food supply. Land degradation, global warming and resistant organisms have limited the adequate food... Consumer...
Organic chemistry
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...CHEMISTRY Muhammad Shoaib Shakir Academia Research 29th May 2009 Compound A Percentage of Carbon as calculated is: 62 Dividing thesepercentages by their respective relative molecular masses we get the Ratio by mole as: 62.1/12 Percentage of Hydrogen is calculated as: 10.3% Ratio by mole is: 10.3/1 Percentage of Oxygen is: 27.6% Ratio by mole of oxygen is: 27.5/16 Solution obtained from these calculations show that the compound has a chemical formula of C3H6O Classes of organic compounds which give positive test when treated with silver nitrate are aldehydes but since this does not it can either be a ketone or an alcohol No reaction on the addition of sodium hydrogen carbonate clears... ORGANIC...
Chemistry exercises
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...CHEMISTRY the following compounds:  a) SiF4: Silicon tetrafluoride b) CaF2: Calcium fluoride c) NH4CI: Ammonium chloride d) (NH4)3(P04 Ammonium phospate e) PCL5: Phosphorous pentachloride f) H2S04: Sulphuric acid  2) For the reaction: 2AgN03 + BaCl2 ► 2AgCl + Ba(N03)2  If a solution containing 41.6g of AgN03 is mixed with a solution that contains 35.4g BaCl2:  a) which reagent is limiting and which in excess? Ans. 2AgN03 + BaCl2 ► 2AgCl + Ba(N03)2 The molar ratio between AgNO3 and BaCl2 is 2:1 Mr of AgNO3 = 169.87 Mr of BaCl2 = 208.33 Given mass of AgNO3= 41.6g Given mass of BaCl2= 35.4 g Moles = Mass/ Mr Moles of AgNO3 present in given mass= 41.6/169.87= 0.24489...
Organic chemistry
14 pages (3500 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...coke dust, grate ash, fly ash, and flame soot, a dibenzofuran is commonly used... ?Section A a) Explain, with examples, why singlet oxygen is important in the degradation of organic molecules in the environment. Unlike the oxidative properties of the ground-state oxygen, singlet oxygen which by nature works in its excited state is capable of degrading molecules through photosensitization. A singlet oxygen is typically produced by a photosensitizer pigment with which such element facilitates the sun’s detrimental impact upon organic matters in significant number. Concrete instances would be the study conducted on the selective oxidative degradation of organic pollutants by singlet oxygen-mediated...
Chemistry in Daily Life
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...Chemistry in daily life "Chemistry has invaded our lives, has provided us with new foods and new materials, has replaced wood and metal with less expensive products, has enabled low-income classes to acquire things that otherwise would have been inaccessible." - Luciano Caglioti Chemistry is a word which associates with every individual at the time of birth, or shall we say, even before birth. Right from a women's pregnancy till she delivers the baby, chemistry stays inherent in her in one way or the other. Beginning from...
Reflection on Chemistry
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...Chemistry Chemistry is a branch of science that deals with the composition, structure and the properties of matter. These aspects can be best described and understood in terms of the basic constituents of matter: atoms and molecules. Due to this, chemistry is often referred to as the science of atoms and molecules. Can we see, weigh and perceive these entities? Is it possible to count the number of atoms and molecules in a given mass of matter and have a quantitative relationship between mass and the number of atoms and molecules in an exact manner? The answer is precisely a No! Chemistry can be divided into branches according to either the substances studied or the types of study... ?Reflection on...
Chemistry of hazardous materials
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...Chemistry of Hazardous Materials Chemistry of Hazardous Materials A) White phosphorus also known as yellow phosphorus requires safety measures like wearing gloves while handling because of the significant hazard it can cause to its user. This allotrope is tremendously toxic and can be lethal. Moreover, white phosphorus can cause deep slow healing burns and is highly inflammable and reactive to the extent that a fire can erupt, however, while burning white phosphorus can also cause damage to the kidneys, heart, or liver. Furthermore, prolonged skin exposure to phosphorus can cause dermatitis. Therefore, in order to avoid hazards that may cause skin burn it...
Chemistry and Computer Science
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...Chemistry, Computers and Computer science Chemistry has a relation with every aspect of the life that deals withthe matter. Matter is everything around us. It can be solid, liquid and gas. The more in-depth study suggests that human bodies and natural processes are also dependent on the chemicals and chemical reaction to sustain. Moreover our cars and power generation units convert chemical energy in fuel to a more useable form. Chemistry has a deep relation to the computers and computer technology. The way we moved towards the more energy efficient electrical and electronic products depicts that generation after generation, the knowledge...
Steel chemistry essay
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...coke and limestone flux. The resulting product from the furnace is called pig iron. Pig iron is strong enough to be molded into various c shapes. Cast iron and its different types are produced at the foundry industries. The different types of cast iron produced at foundry industries include ductile iron, gray iron, and malleable iron. However, a larger percentage of cast iron is further refined to produce steel. Generally, steel can be said to be an alloy whereby iron predominates and carbon is used. Carbon is normally below 2 percent... ?Steel Introduction Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. Steel cannot be mined directly from the earth’s surface. Iron is the main source of steel. Iron is found in...
Chemical KInetics Chemistry
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...Chemistry: Chemical Ideas, Heinemann Educational Publishers. Goldberger, M. and Watson, K. (2004) Collision Theory, Dover Publications. Guggenheim, E. (2007) Boltzmanns Distribution Law, North-Holland Pub. Co. Leigh, G. (2007) Catalysts for Nitrogen Fixation, Haber-Bosch and Other Industrial Processes, vol. 1, pp. 33-54. Levine, R. (2005) Structural Considerations in the Calculation of Reaction Rates, in Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Cambridge University Press. Lister, T. and Renshaw, J. (1999) Kinetics, in Understanding... Task A. Explaining the factors that affect the rate of reaction Temperature Raising the temperature of a chemical reaction causes the reaction rate to rise due to the increased amount...
Physical Chemistry Lab Report
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...chemistry, 2006 2. Kalyanasundaram, K. photo physics, photochemistry and solar energy conversion with ruthenium and its analogues, 1982. 3. Schwenz R.W and Moore, R.J Physical Chemistry: Developing a Dynamic Curriculum, 1993, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC... Luminescence quenching Ruthenium complexes have been extensively used as photosensitizers in solar conservation systems. Luminescence quenching is the process that decreases the fluorescence intensity of a given substance. It has been used in many applications in industries. The kinematics of luminescence quenching is the basic principle for the experiment. This paper looks into the experimental procedure, findings and discusses the...
Titration Chemistry Essay
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...chemistry, a solution is a mixture of two or more homogenous substances, and commonly, the components of the solutions have to be determined. The basic definitions in a solution include the solvent, which is the mixing agent in the solution, the solute, which is the substance dissolved in the solute, and the concentration, which is the amount if solvent, dissolved in the solute (Tro 25). In this case, titration refers to the determination of the exact concentration of one substance in a mixture or solution (Tro 125). In chemistry, the process of titration does not have this simple definition, since it involves the determination of the molarity of one substance dissolved in another... ?Titration In...
Chemistry of dyeing process
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...Chemistry of Dyeing Dyeing is said to have begun in about 20,000 BC with the earliest use of clothing to determine the status as well as the identity of the wearer (Tsatsarou-Michalaki 2). This practice of applying color on yarn and fabric went on for many years in many different cultures and even at present, the tradition of dyeing remains with us. Moreover, recent advances in modern technology and chemical techniques have brought this tradition to its maximum status so far. Nevertheless, with such an importance in our culture, a chemistry student needs to know how dyeing exactly takes place at the molecular level as well as other technical questions related to the practice of dyeing. How... ? The...
Org chemistry drawing assignment
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...Chemistry Drawing Assignment Draw a chair cyclohexane ring and label of the substituents as axial or equatorial. Figure 1: Axial (a) and equatorial (e) positions in cyclohexane 2) Draw trans-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane and cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane as their most stable chair conformations. Label all non-favorable interactions, describe why they are unfavorable, and to what value (energy). Which is more stable, the trans or cis structure? Figure 2: cis and trans 1,2-dimethylcyclohexane. All non-favorable 1,3-diaxial interactions are presented in the figure above. Such interactions are unfavorable because both methyl groups and hydrogens try to occupy the same space, which leads... Your Module Organic...
Chemistry of hazardous material
1 pages (250 words) , Essay
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...Chemistry of Hazardous Materials Compounds refer to substances that are made up of more than one element or compound. The elements or compounds are combined by specific formula, in ratio, and for each compound, the percentage composition of each of its component bears a relationship to the molar mass of the involved elements and the involved mole ratios. Percentage by Mass of Sulfur Trioxide If Oleum Is Expressed As 3H2SO4.5SO3 Using molar masses and the mole ratio of Oleum, the percentage composition of sulfur trioxide can be obtained as follows: The relative molar masses of the involved elements are H= 1 S= 32 0= 16 Therefore, mass of 3H2SO4 = 3(1*2+ 32+ 16*4)=...
Chemistry central journal
5 pages (1250 words) , Essay
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...Chemistry and Drug Design Schmuker, M., M. de Bruyne, M. Hähnel and G. Schneider. (2007). Predicting olfactory receptor neuron responses from odorant structure. Chemistry Central Journal. 2007, 1:11. .... This paper will be a critique of “Predicting olfactory receptor neuron responses from odorant structure”. This particular aspect of neurobiology is concerned with predicting Olfactory Receptor Neurons’ (ORNs) responses from molecular structure and the description of Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs) between odorant and activated receptor. In order for the researchers to complete these two goals, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) models were used on existing datasets of ORN responses, then a...
Topic in Environmental Chemistry
2 pages (500 words) , Essay
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...chemistry techniques that provided congener specific analysis of Aroclors. Aroclors are trade name of some commercial PCB mixture and can be used to trace their company manufacturer. This method provided information to the scientists on how PCBs behave in various media, a cutting edge scientific technique was used to determine the sources and destinations of PCBs (Manning part 1 par. 7). Aside from recycling mills with a dumping rate of 2.3 kg/year... Prof PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls) in New York’s Hudson River Where does the Buck Stop? Jennnifer Manning Hudson River, known today as contaminated and is subjected to the most expensive, largest, most innovative environmental clean-up projects in US...
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