Using current primary literature, discuss the aromatase-inhibiting anticancer drugs
6 pages (1506 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione, involving a unique sequence of three reactions that require O2 molecules to produce an aromatic ring structure within the oestrogen molecule. The binding fit of androstenedione to aromatase is tight because the aromatase enzyme is not one of the promiscuous enzymes — which have... The aromatase-inhibiting (AI) drugs target the aromatase enzyme in the human body. Most of the development and use of these drugs have been for cancers of the breast, as well as a selection of other cancers, found to express aromatase enzyme activity. Aromatase synthesizes estrogens. Estrogens play a key role in the development and growth of breast tumors. Hence, estrogen is a key target in breast cancer drug...
Sports Nutrition
2 pages (502 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione, erythropoietin, amphetamines, stimulants, peptide hormones, human growth hormones and Insulin. The sports enhancing drugs helps the athletes to enhance physically, increase their body mass, improve... Sports Nutrition SPORTS NUTRITION This essay is about popular enhancing supplements, whether I would implement the plan for an athlete, the regulations governing the use of these supplements and the way I would counsel an athlete that is using a banned substance. For a long time now, many people who are engaged in competitive sports have been trying to gain an edge over their opponents by using performance-enhancing drugs. These performance-enhancing drugs include steroids, cretins,...
Post Menopausal Syndrome
1 pages (251 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione hormones which lead to osteoporosis... Menopause, which refers to the cessation of the menstrual cycle, usually occurs above the age of 45. During this period the menstrual cycle occurs irregularly over a period of 6 to 12 months before it eventually stops. The menopause period and post menopausal period includes certain physical and psychological changes. Menopause is associated with a reduction of estrogen levels in the women’s body and several of the changes are related to the lowering of this vital hormone. One of the most striking changes that occur during this period is the psychological changes which include moodiness, anxiety, irritability and fear. Other symptoms include lack of...
Doping in Sports
4 pages (1004 words) , Research Paper
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...androstenedione, human growth hormones, stimulants, creatine, erythropoietin and diuretics. According to this research, about 1-3 million athletes in the United States have been involved in the use of anabolic steroids by the year 2005, with designer steroids being the commonly abused (O'Leary and John 23). II. Dangers and Side effects The side effects and the health risks associated with performance enhancing drugs are difficult to assess to the fact that these drugs are illegal. However, studies have revealed the consequences... Doping in sports Thesis ment Doping in sports is a problem because of dangerous side effects, cost of drugtesting, and loss of revenue to owners and players Introduction...
Biology of Androgens and Estrogens
6 pages (1506 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione, and 11-hydroxyandrostenedione. DHEA and androstenedione are weak androgens and exert their effects via conversion to the potent androgen testosterone in extraglandular tissues. DHEA also has poorly understood effects on the immune and cardiovascular systems. Adrenal androgen formation is regulated by ACTH, not by gonadotropins, thus are suppressed by exogenous glucocorticoid administration. The male reproductive system regulates sexual differentiation, virilization, and the hormonal changes that accompany... Biology of Androgens and Estrogens Introduction Androgens, such as testosterone, are primarily produced in the testes, but physiologically significant amounts can be synthesized by...
summery of the studies been done by 3 researchers (B.K. CAMPBELL, HELEN PICTON and MC NEILY) on folliculogenesis in Female ewes.
4 pages (1004 words) , Outline
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...androstenedione in the ovary and the concentration of PRL, LH, and FSH, during the estrous cycle of sheep. The experiment was run on six Merino sheep, in which the left ovary was transplanted to the neck. The conclusions indicate the secretion of FSH in the estrous cycle was controlled by estradiol. McNeilly (et al. 1992) studied the secretion of inhibin, oestradiol and androstenedione, in oestrous cycle of 24 Scottish Ewes... Summary of the studies been done by 3 researchers B.K. Campbell, Helen Picton and Mc Neily on Folliculogenesis in Ewes July 24, Summary of Research A number of researchers have studied the reproduction cycles, and folliculogenesis in Ewes. This document presents the research of Cam...
Should doping be allowed in professional sports?
1 pages (251 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione and creatine which are dietary supplements available over the counter and most athletes often use them. Urban Wiesing argues whether doping should be allowed under the watch specialized physicians. He continues to ascertain that legalizing doping in competitive sport presents both positive... Professional Sports and Doping Folke Sjoqvist, Mats Garle and Anders Rane in Use of Doping Agents, Particularly Anabolic Steroids, in Sports and Society talks of how anabolic androgenic steroids has advanced from just a sport-related problem to public health issue. ProCon.org says how proponents argue that health risks of doping are often overstated whereas the opponents argue that those risks are...
ing-minske procedure/ amino acid protection/ nucleotide analogues/ stereochemistry/ regioselectivity
4 pages (1004 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione to estrone involves two major steps. 1.) Hydroxylation and elimination of the C-10 methyl group. 2.) Oxidative attack resulting in a double-bond introduction in the ‘A’ ring. Aromatase catalyses the aromatization of the steroid ring... Importance of amino acid protection in synthesizing small peptides: Production of peptides in known as “peptide synthesis”, in organic chemistry. However, these organic compounds contain multiple amino acids which are bound together via “peptide” bonds; also known as amide bonds. Synthesis of peptides involves the coupling of carboxyl group or C-terminus of one amino acid to the amino group or N-terminus of another amino acid. In this process unintended...
What kind of advantage do steroids really give athletes especially in a sport like baseball where it takes more than muscle to hit a curveball?
4 pages (1004 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione. Steroids create power, and power makes baseball more interesting… after the 2004 season baseball’s greatest home run, hitter Barry Bonds and slugger Jason Giambi were revealed to have used steroids. (2006, p. 212) As it is, the competitive advantages of a heightened performance which enables the players to surpass their abilities are the main reason here. Jose Canseco, a Major League Baseball player himself, in a tell-all book called Juiced, goes beyond admitting his own usage to claiming that he often injected Mark McGuire while they were teammates. Fleckenstein, Hanson & Venturelli (2005) wrote: “According to Canseco, steroids and human growth hormone gave... Sam Wri 1200 XM June 15,...
Steriodogenesis has a common pathway but hormonal steriods are secreted in a strongly cell specific manner. Discuss
3 pages (753 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione. Aromatase complex converts the latter two hormones into estrogen (John 1994, p.88). All steroidal hormones share a common biosynthesis pathway that involves cleavage of a six carbon group from the precursor (cholesterol) by p450 side chain linked cleaving enzyme as the rate limiting step. They all use cholesterol as there precursor however, they get secreted in a strongly cell specific manner. Adrenal cortex has three zones with cells which are histological distinct and each zone produces a different type of steroidal hormone. Each zone has different receptors on the cell membrane that anchor specific tropic hormone (John 1994, p.68). . Bibliography Donald... ? Steriodogenesis...
Amino Acide
7 pages (1757 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione to estrone involves two major steps. 1.) Hydroxylation and elimination of the C-10 methyl group. 2.) Oxidative attack resulting in a double-bond introduction in the 'A' ring. Aromatase catalyses the aromatization... Importance of amino acid protection in synthesizing small peptides: Production of peptides in known as "peptide synthesis", in organic chemistry. However, these organic compounds contain multiple amino acids which are bound together via "peptide" bonds; also known as amide bonds. Synthesis of peptides involves the coupling of carboxyl group or C-terminus of one amino acid to the amino group or N-terminus of another amino acid. In this process unintended reactions are...
Why do women have facial hair or body hair. What is causing this phenomena. Can it be cured or changed?
4 pages (1004 words) , Research Paper
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...androstenedione (A) into androgens at the cells, skin, and hair follicles (Monash University, 2010, p.1). Male bodies produce more of the androgen hormone than women, which is necessary for development of their masculine features (muscles, deep voice, body hair on their chest, inner thighs, arms and lower abdomen and facial hair like mustache and beards among others). Similarly, a high level... Research paper, Health Sciences and Medicine 9 March Why do Women have Facial Hair or Body Hair? What is causing this Phenomenon? Can it be cured or changed? 1. Introduction Hair growth in women’s facial and body parts varies in individuals based on factors like race, health conditions, heredity tendency, diet lif...
Olympian Marion Jones
3 pages (753 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione, erythropoietin, and cretin especially in high school level. There are actually some medical uses on these drugs. Perhaps, these drugs can be used for medical purposes; they are carefully controlled since they are illegal if not used in accordance with doctor’s prescription (Quinn, 2007). The advantage of using the sport enhancing drugs include; bigger body mass, physical enhancement, improved strength and endurance and improved performance. Steroids increase muscle strength and mass, which help quick recovery of injuries implicated on the athletes (Newman, 2012). The disadvantages of these drugs have to do with physical side effects... ? Marion Jones Marion Jones Performance enhancing...
Major 8-1
3 pages (753 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione [but the ban is difficult to enforce], as the steroid is not tested for in standard drug test (Josefson, 1996, 702).” Perhaps, encouraging professional role models to speak out against abuse of performance-enhancing drugs will reduce adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent must learn to cope with stress by setting... Adolescence and Performance Enhancing Drugs May 6, 2006 Adolescence and Performance Enhancing Drugs Steroids are often used to build muscle mass in people with degenerative diseases like muscular dystrophy, which are obtained by prescription. However, performance-enhancing drugs like steroids are being used by adolescence, which are sometimes “available over the counter or m...
reproduction problems
4 pages (1004 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione, DHEA and testosterone therefore excessive accumulation of this steroid hormone has led to the ambiguous external genitalia. The ovaries inside the patient are normal and the fallopian tubes, uterus and upper vagina are also normal due to the fact that they are not exposed to testicular antimullerian hormone. The elevated levels of testosterone lead... ? [Teacher’s Reproduction problems Case The patient has a deficiency in the enzyme 21B hydroxylase which is responsiblefor the biosynthesis of corticosteroids which include cortisol and aldosterone. The enzyme is found in the gene CYP21A2. The deficiency of this hormone ultimately affects adrenal glands and is of congenital etiology. This...
steroids in sports
5 pages (1255 words) , Essay
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...Androstenedione and Primobolan. In the past, mostly basketball players were found using steroids for several reasons. Health issues related to Steroid uses The physicians should take proper care before prescribing any drug or steroid to their patients. It can badly affect or harm their health. As use of steroid in countries, physicians should make sure that they avoid prescribing any such drugs to their patients at any cost. Steroids damage the skin of the users and internally damage the organs of the human being. It gives strength, muscles, and excessive power for the time being, after that, the players feels worse. These steroids... Inserts His/her Inserts Inserts Grade (13, 06, Steroids in Sports...
Adolescence and Performance Enhancing Drugs
2 pages (502 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione [but the ban is difficult to enforce], as the steroid is not tested for in standard drug test (Josefson, 1996, 702)." Perhaps, encouraging professional role models to speak out against abuse of performance-enhancing drugs will reduce adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent must learn to cope with stress by setting... Adolescence and Performance Enhancing Drugs May 6, 2006 Adolescence and Performance Enhancing Drugs Steroids are often used to build muscle mass in people with degenerative diseases like muscular dystrophy, which are obtained by prescription. However, performance-enhancing drugs like steroids are being used by adolescence, which are sometimes "available over the counter or m...
Steriods in sports
5 pages (1255 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione, primobolan, tetrahydrogestrinone and clenbuteral (Clinical Aspects) Since the introduction of steroids in the medicinal filed in the early 1950’s to treat various body abnormalities such as the hypogonadism which is a condition associated with very low testosterone production in the human body (males), the application of steroids in various sporting activities have been increasing rapidly among men and women (Clinical Aspects) Steroids use ha been rampant especially in the athletics for men and women; in sports like Bodybuilding the use of steroids... There are two major ifications of steroids that are mostly utilized: The anabolic and the corticosteroids. The Corticosteroids is also...
Anabolic Steroids
5 pages (1255 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione, boldenone, testosterone, dromostanolone, dihydrotestosterone and methenolone. Research has shown that more and more youngsters are abusing anabolic steroids. Footballers and others use these drugs... Anabolic Steroids and Pressure to Perform in Sports A career in sports will mean lots of choices and compromises. Athletes may have to sacrificetheir social and family life and spend lots of money to build their career. They may also suffer from pain related to the physical work involved in sports. But of all these, the most important aspect which an athlete needs to put up with is pressure to perform. Pressure is the essence of sports, especially competitive sports wherein certain pivotal...
I have two ideas: Either the illegal use of steroids for athletes( or in general) or Elmimate the soda bottles/can/water bottles
4 pages (1004 words) , Research Proposal
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...Androstenedione is a type of anabolic-androgenic steroid used by players who desire... ? Introduction Drugs normally de d as "steroids" are known as anabolic -androgenic or (anabolic) as well as corticosteroids. Corticosteroids, for instance, cortisone, are medicines, which doctors typically recommend to aid control inflammation within the body. Cortisone drugs are commonly used to aid control illnesses like lupus and asthma. Cortisone drugs are not similar as anabolic steroids, which receive great media awareness for their usage by certain bodybuilders and athletes. Anabolic steroids are drugs, which have similar upshots to testosterone within the body (Kanayama 705). Steroids increase protein in cells, ...
Adverse T:E Ratio: Possible Doping
10 pages (2510 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone, and related substances. In fact, only small amounts of unchanged anabolic steroids are excreted unchanged in urine. The metabolism involves...  Adverse T: E Ratio: Possible Doping The misuse of drugs in human sports in an attempt to enhance performance, usually known as doping, is, unfortunately, an extensive and old practice. Ethical and health aspects are of particular concern. Sports, fair play, medical ethics and potential risks for the health of the athlete leads to consider this practice unacceptable. The definition of doping adopted in the World Anti-doping Code is the occurrence of one or more of a set of...
Athelets and Drugs
6 pages (1506 words) , Research Paper
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...androstenedione during his record breaking season. Few years back, NFL linebacker Brian Bosworth tested positive for steroids and was banned from playing in a championship college game. He claimed that taking steroids are safe, once it is in small amounts... Athletes and Drugs Introduction Recreational drugs, both legal and illegal, are used by members of every social group. They are used by rich and poor, young and old, and by members of every race and religious group. Athletes are no exception, and drug use in the "sports world" is widespread. In this paper I will talk about some of the most common used drugs in sports, why athletes use them, and how to stop the problem of drug use. Drugs Used by Athle...
Steroids
10 pages (2510 words) , Research Proposal
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...androstenedione, have gained increasing popularity as athletic enhancing supplements in recent years. These precursors, which include 4-androstenediol, norandrostenedione and norandrostenediol, currently are available without prescription and have powerful hormonal effects in men and women. Evidence exists that the effects are not unlike using anabolic androgenic steroids. Anabolic steroid precursors are being marketed as anabolic-equivalent "dietary supplements" that promise to increase muscle mass. According to FDA reports, ephedra's use has been associated... STEROIDS: RISK VS. BENEFIT Introduction When we here the word steroid we think of the sports and athletic events, as these chemicals are abused...
Clinical studies of hormonal treatment approaches to prostate cancer
15 pages (3765 words) , Dissertation
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...androstenedione products which are formed through its lyase activity. The dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione are androgens and they are the precursors of the testosterone which ultimately assist in the growth of the cancer cells in prostate. (Goldenberg 2011). Thus the drug inhibits the catalytic activities of the enzyme CYP17 and ultimately reducing the level of the circulating testosterone level. “It is within this context... ? Alternate Hormonal Treatment Approaches to Metastasis Prostrate Cancer Introduction: The fundamental unit of life is cell. The human body is made up of numerous cells and these cells carry out various functions all throughout the body. Generally growth occurs in...
Pathology/Physiology
36 pages (9036 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione, prolactin, and LH along with a normal, high or low estrogen levels" (Kumar and Khan, 2012). Many women discover they have the condition when they go for routine pap smears. For some reason, there is a surge in the prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome women either due to environmental interactions or due to increased evaluation secondary to awareness of the patients. Lack of finances and physical fitness education are the greatest challenges to attaining appropriate treatment. Medical examinations, vitamins, and healthy food cost money and lack of resources can mean utilizing what is attainable rather than what it is appropriate... Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Life itself...
Human genome project (PCR)
12 pages (3012 words) , Essay
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...androstenedione in PCOS. These findings could have a linking with a paracrine action of antimullerian factor on the over-activity of theca cells demonstrated by antimullerian type II receptor in theca interstitial cells in maturing follicles (Azziz et al, 2006). Another common feature of PCOS is a general increase in the concentrations of plasma luteinising hormone; this consist both the increased pulse amplitude and pulse frequency. The elevated concentrations of serum LH that results supposedly leads... Genome Project Using PCR Inserts Insert Grade Insert 20th March, The Sex hormone-binding globulin gene (SHBG) is the gene responsible for the transport of male sex hormones that include estradiol and...
The short term endocrine responses to resistance training and subsequent effects on neuromuscular performance
16 pages (4016 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...androstenedione... Short-term Endocrine Responses to Resistance Training and Subsequent Effects on Neuromuscular Performance / Course Date Total Number of Words: 4,114 Introduction The endocrine system enables the internal environment of the human body to become stable by releasing homes such as testosterone, cortisol, corticosteroids, growth hormone, insulin, and insulin like growth factor. Basically, the hormones are substances that were secreted out of the endocrine glands. The endocrine system is important part of the human body since it regulates the human growth and development aside from the reproductive system and the capability of the human body to handle physical and psychological stress. Ext...
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