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...appearances of things are "objects of intuition", which is one form of (mental) representation. For him this includes physical sensations (such as pain). Kant's view is that appearances do not exist by themselves, but only relatively to external reality. That is, appearances "must not be taken as objects capable of existing outside our power of representation". (Van Cleve, 1999, p. 27) According to this view, the world, as we perceive it, is not actual reality, but is a phenomenon of actual reality as constructed by the mind. He argues that the shape of an object, for example, does not come from the object itself, but comes from us, as a result... For Emmanuel Kant, knowledge (and thus reality) is...