The loss that amounts is in the loss of cash or amount paid for the option. Determinants of an option are stated as stock price, volatility, strike price, risk free (short term) interest rate and time to the expiration. The contract in this case, is called the option contract (Don, 2004, 142). Options are used by holders for leverage or for protection. The leverage function helps the holder to control the shares bought for a portion what they would have cost. On the other hand, protection measures are adopted when the holder wants to guard against price fluctuations. He enters in to a contract with the rights to acquire the stock for a fixed period and specific price. The contracts in either case should be highly observed and monitored for efficient outcomes. The methods used in pricing options have been applied for years and can only be effective if the worth of the option is achieved. This is determined by the probability that on the expiration, the option price will be on a substantial amount of money. Any holder of an option expects a gain on his underlying asset to attain the worth of holding for the time given. The Black Scholes and the Binomial method are the elaborated on below in determining the true worth of an option. The Black Scholes Model: This model dates back in the twentieth century in its application. It was developed by Fisher Black and Myles Scholes in 1973 hence the name Black Scholes (Marion, 2003, 16). It is still in use today. This model uses the theoretical call price where by the dividends amounting during the life of the option is not included in the computation. Theoretically, the price of an option (OP) has been determined by the formulae given below: In this case: (Simon & Benjamin, 2000, 255; Brajendra, 2011, 372) The variables in the above formulae are expressed as shown below: S is the stock price X is the strike price t is the time remaining until the expiration, denoted as percent of a year r is the compounded risk-free interest rate predominant in the current market v is the annual volatility of stock price. ln is the natural logarithm N(x) is the standard normal cumulative distribution function e is the exponential function Below are the necessary requirements for validating this model: Dividends are not paid during the stock period. Variance and interest rate does not change in the course of the option contract. There is no discontinuity in the stock price i.e. a shift from one price to another like the case of tenders. This model applies volatility and normal distribution to determine the movement of options. The Excel add-in format can be used to calculate the normal distribution. Volatility on the other hand, can be implied or historical. The implied volatility of an option allows market traders to observe the current prices of options to determine how volatile they are. This is done by calculating the standard deviation i.e. v2, and in this case all other variables have to be known. Nevertheless historical analysis is not left out. The traders have to observe the performance of the option over past years to assess volatility. This measure is, however, not reliable on its own but provides an insight of the volatility of the option. Volatility has been defined as the unknown change in price of an underling asset during the specified time period which gives the true worth of an option. Volatility of an underlying asset can be assessed and comparison made with a non-volatile
Option Pricing Name: Institution: Subject: Date: Option Pricing An option is defined as a right to buy or sell a specific stock, debt, currency or even an index or a commodity, at a certain amount of money (Strike price) within a stipulated period of time…
According to Madura, J. (2003, p. 63) the main feature here is the automatic readjustment of a currency price to the level required in order to equal the supply and demand for the currency. In this way, it clears the market. This creates an automatic equilibrium in the balance of payments; the capital account balance offsets the current account balance.
IAS 19 sets out standards related to employee benefits offered by business entities. Its main objective is to prescribe the disclosure requirements and accounting procedures to be followed regarding employee benefits.
I will get low mark even fail if the report still use those website references. So can you please use book or journal references instead of those highlighted website references below. Thank you so much. Table of Contents Introduction 3 Current Financial Practices of GHC 3 Profitability position 3 Analysis and Measurement of Political and Country Risk 3 Threats, Shortcomings and Inefficiencies 5 Recommendations 5 Recent Development and Opportunities 5 Expectation of Government from GHC 6 Benefits Expected by GHC 6 Accessing Risk Associated With Inward Investment 7 Responsibilities of Chief Accountant and Group Treasurer 10 Conclusion 12 Reference 13 15 Introduction Global Hardwood Corporation
The Black-Scholes model and the binomial model are the most commonly used option pricing models. These theories have errors because their options are derived from assets. For instance in a company’s stock, time does affect the theories because the process of calculating option pricing takes a long time or is done after several years (Coval, 2001).
The first part analyzes the Glaxo Smith Kline’s (GSK’s) annual report 2010 in relation to the accounting concepts and process if the Group fulfils the requirements of accounting policies. The financial accounting is the process of preparing and operating accounting information system and disclosing the prepared financial information to the stakeholders of the business.
It also assesses and supervises financial organizations for security and reliability. It also embarks on consumer-protection roles, and administers financial institutions in receivership. Insured institutions are required to put indicators at their business premises declaring that their deposits are supported by the full trust and credit of the U.S.
PD: the companys Preferred Stock Dividends 2. RP: the companys Expected Redemption of the Preferred Stock 3. RD: the company’s Expected Redemption of Debt 4. E: Expenditures for sustaining cash flows Dividend valuation model assuming a dividend cover of 2, a constant dividend in perpetuity and a cost of capital of 20% Triumph plc ?
Secondly, the fact that the enhanced disclosure is as well not enough and finally, there is the objective of realizing an improvement in the quality and the comparability of the financial reporting. During the analysis of the lessee’s financial position, it is evident that many users tend to want to capitalize operating leases through adjustments made to the reported financial information.
As put into words by Lee (1996, p32-37):
The earnings that are reflected in a company's financial statements are considered to be the most important evaluator of a company's stock. The companies tend to report enhanced earnings every year so as to assure the shareholders of their performance and profitability.
ompany’s stock, time does affect the theories because the process of calculating option pricing takes a long time or is done after several years (Coval, 2001).
An option provides the buyer the right to buy or sale the quantity of goods he or she wants at a fixed price known
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