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Pathophysiology- CARDIO and PULMONARY SYSTEMS - Assignment Example

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884448- Research Paper Name Module Institution Table of Contents 1st question 3 2nd question 6 3rd question 8 4th question 10 5th question 11 1st question 1) Cholesterol is a form of fat that is not at all bad for body. A specific amount is essential for the healthy lifestyle and the normal physiological functioning of the cells…
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LDL can build inside the walls of the arteries and can increase the chances of heart diseases. That is the reason of calling LDL, as a bad cholesterol. HDL is a high density lipoprotein, also called as good cholesterol. A high number of it indicates good health. 2) The cholesterol level below 200 mg/dL is considered normal. The cholesterol level ranging from 200 to 240 mg/dL is a border line case. The level above 240 mg/dL is a high cholesterol level. Mr. T had a cholesterol level of 250mg/dL a year ago, which indicates that the level would have increased many folds now because of the consistency of the same living pattern. 3) He should immediately go to the physician and get these tests done, Total cholesterol (less than 200 mg/dL) LDL level (70-130 mg/dL) HDL level (more than 40-60 mg/dL) Triglycerides in blood. (10-150 mg/dL) Complete lipid profile test. The patient should be further asked about the family history of obesity, diabetes, underactive thyroids, history of cardiovascular disorders, lifestyle, mode of working, diet and sleeping pattern. 4) Coronary artery disease is caused by the buildup of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the arteries around the heart, the coronary arteries. The risk of developing the coronary heart disease in Mr. T is very high. As he is around 45 and have a family history of the heart disease, he is most likely to suffer from the heart disorders in the near future. An imbalance of the cholesterol carrying lipoproteins can lead to the buildup of cholesterol in the body especially around the heart. The blood supply to the heart gets shortened due to the narrowing of the arteries, as a result of lipid accumulation. This transient blockage leads to the ischemic condition, lack of nutrients and oxygen flow towards the heart. The after load and pre load of the heart increases due to ischemia and narrowing arteries which may further lead to MI. As a result of the great work load on heart, it has to exert maximum pressure to push the blood in the vessels which will cause the hypertension. Greater the force exerted by blood on the walls of the vessels, greater are the chances of hypertension. Heart diseases are the collective diseases including hypertension, valve disease, MI, inflammation of heart, arrhythmias, ischemia and coronary heart failure. Mr. T has an increased risk of these diseases due to the increased cholesterol level. 5) The pathophysiology of hypertension is very complex. This includes the following factors, Vascular caliber and elasticity, which decreases with age. Blood viscosity. Circulating blood volume. Neural stimulation. Cardiac output. Humoral mediators. Lifestyle including alcohol consumption. Higher the presence of the risk factors, greater are the chances of hyper tension and the related diseases. Decreased flow of blood and nutrients to heart may cause ischemia of the myocardial cells. Lack of oxygen cause the cell death. This cell death leads to muscle death and later myocardial scarring without heart muscle regrowth. Coronary artery disease is associated directly with hypertension and dietary habits. It is caused by the narrowing of the arteries due to the atheromatous formation and occlusion of vessel. A plaque of lipid forms in the coronary arteries which may block the blood supply to the heart ultimately leading the MI and chronic heart disease. 6) Atherosclerosis is the progressive disease. The exact underlying cause is yet to be discovered. ... Read More
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