Thus, the world is threatened with the risk of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in the form of a pandemic that thrusts on the financial state of the State. Apart from that, emergence of immune deficiency viral disease has also predisposed to rapid spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Present knowledge on the molecular basis of development of multi-drug resistance may be utilized to develop a diagnostic protocol applying improved genetic analysis to detect the point mutations in the multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, so the clinicians may diagnose and treat this disease better. This research proposal aims to analyze the scientific basis of such a protocol, not only to add to the existing knowledge but also to devise a method that at least theoretically has far-reaching implications in the control of the disease that could be a global threat.
Background: Recent years have witnessed a phenomenal upsurge in number of reported cases of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is defined as bacterial isolate strains that are resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin with or without resistance to other anti-tuberculosis drugs. Since there is a gradual increase in the number of cases throughout the world including the developed countries, World Health Organization (WHO) has termed this as a global emergency. The rise of MDR-TB showing resistance to conventional treatments is a serious threat to control of tuberculosis disease load throughout the world in high-prevalence countries and low prevalence countries as well. ...
The rise of MDR-TB showing resistance to conventional treatments is a serious threat to control of tuberculosis disease load throughout the world in high-prevalence countries and low prevalence countries as well. According to estimates of WHO, 50 million people world-wide are infected with MDR-TB. In the year 2000, the number of new tuberculosis cases was 8.7 million, of which 3.1% was MDR-TB yielding a count of 273,000 (World Health Organization, 2005).
Drug Resistance: Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to individual drugs arise by spontaneous point mutations in the mycobacterial genome that occurs at low but predictable rates (Dye, C., Williams, B.G., Espinal, M.A., and Raviglione, M.C., 2002). This is just one of the many strategies these living organisms employ to resist the antimicrobial agents, and this is applicable to the whole typical and atypical mycobacterial family of organisms (World Health Organization/International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 1994). Isoniazid and rifampin are cornerstones of antitubercular therapy (van Rie, A., Gie, R.P., Enarson, D., and Beyers, N., 2000). The development of multidrug resistance poses a great threat to the individual in the sense that resistance to either isoniazid and rifampin may be managed with other first-line drugs, MDR-TB demands treatment with second-line drugs that have limited sterilizing capacity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and these drugs are less effective and more toxic. This has particularly created a situation of pandemic of antibiotic resistance that threatens the globe (Pablos-Mendez, A., Lazlo, A., and Bustreo, F., 1997).
Mechanism: To solve the problem and to find out an effective