Health Sciences & Medicine
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To ascertain the presence of acute renal failure in patients, the following diagnostic tests are required: Blood tests that include "CBC, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, electrolytes (including Ca and PO4)…


To ascertain the presence of acute renal failure in patients, the following diagnostic tests are required: Blood tests that include "CBC, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, electrolytes (including Ca and PO4)Urine tests include Na and creatinine concentration and microscopic analysis of sediment; acidosis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and anemia." (Merck Manuals, 2005) The physician may also order an ultrasound scan to determine the degree of obstruction or damage to the kidneys.Oliguria or the reduced urine output may occur in postrenal or intrinsic renal acute causes. The case did not state whether Mrs. Rainer was diagnosed with postrenal or intrinsic renal cause. In any case, there are several possibilities associated with oliguria. In postrenal causes, a probable cause of oliguria comes from an obstructed urinary tract. The obstructed urinary tract could be caused by "1) a blocked urethral catheter; 2) calculi/blood clot in single kidney; or 3) pelvic malignancy" (Cumming, n.d.).In intrinsic renal causes, the most common occurrences of oliguria are in acute tubular necrosis (ATN). There are two principal types of ATN: Ischaemic tubular necrosis and Nephrotoxic ATN (Cumming, n.d.) With Ischaemic tubular necrosis, "the renal blood flow is below 20% the normal level and the endothelial cells of glomerular and peritubular capillaries are swollen and oedema of the interstitium." (Cumming, n.d.) ...
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