To start with, the practice of contraception is as old as human existence evidenced by the ancient writings on Kahun papyrus in 1850 BCE with ancient Egyptian techniques related to prevent pregnancy (Samra, Wood, and Cowan 1). Nowadays, government’s promotion for contraception is high as this is the means to hasten the rapidly-growing population and prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases or STDs (applicable for condoms). Using contraception is a matter of choice for couples or individuals, however, Doctor Andrew M. Kaunitz of University of Florida Health Science Center, emphasizes its importance in reducing unintended pregnancies and abortions and in facilitating family planning or birth spacing. Furthermore, there are different types contraception (barrier, mechanical, hormonal, natural methods, and emergency and permanent methods) for men and women, depending on their age, health, and personal situation (Stoppler and Shiel Jr. 2). It is a must to consult a health care professional (except in abstinence) prior to using any contraceptive for complete evaluation of any medical concerns and review of family history for potentials risks to rule out any medical contraindications. (Chisholm-Burns, Schwinghammer, Wells, Malone, Kolesar, and Dipiro 843). Though most contraceptives are highly effective, however, according to family planning specialist Dawn Stacey, there are factors that may influence its effectiveness including the user’s motivation, accessibility, fertility levels, and properly following directions. The following are the different types of contraceptives summarized according to what it is, who is meant to use, how it works, its efficacy, and the associated risks and side effects: ABSTINENCE The American Pregnancy Association considers abstinence as a means of contraception by voluntary refraining from sexual activity and this is the only method considered 100% effective in pregnancy prevention and transmissions of STDs (“Overview: Types of Birth Control”). There are no side effects or health-related risks associated with abstinence method. FERTILITY AWARENESS METHOD: NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING (NFP) NFP is another nonpharmacological means of pregnancy prevention; however, failure rates of such methods can be high. There are three types of NFP: (1) The calendar or rhythm method involves counting the days in the menstrual cycle and then using a mathematical equation to determine the fertile window; (2) The temperature method involves monitoring changes in the woman’s basal body temperature using a basal thermometer each day; and (3) The cervical mucus or Billings ovulation method involves observing the cervical mucus secretions throughout the cycle (Chisholm, et al. 852). No side effects and health-related risk associated. HORMONAL METHODS These methods are in the form of pill, patch, shot, ring, or implant, all of which contain estrogen and/or progesterone hormones. Hormonal methods work in one of three ways.