This assignment will discuss public health inequalities in terms of old and contemporary explanations of its causes based on available literature and then proceed to a reflective exploration of my feelings towards the issue of public health inequality basing on DEADACRE. …
Cognitive Discussion on Public Health Inequality The term public health has been defined in various ways taking into consideration the different aspects of it. Turnock (2009, p. 9) defines public health as the fulfilling of society’s interest in assuring conditions in which people can be healthy. Hence, public health concerns all the different dynamics that influence health, besides drawing attention to the social, economic and political factors that affect health. It is in this concept of public health that the issue of public health inequality arises. Farrell, McAvoy and Wilde (2007, pp. 12) state that health inequalities are a breach to human right, concurring with Hunt (2003, pp. 603-607) who argues that individuals have a right to the highest attainable standard of health, and when such is available to one section of society only then a breach to human rights occurs. Hunt and Backman (2008, pp. 40) also categorically state that heath is a fundamental human right central in exercising other rights. Public health inequality is of interest as an area of study because from the definition of public health it can be seen to be one of the basic things that public health systems around the world seek to address. According to Orton et al. (2011, pp. 2-5) it has been demonstrated that the most important determinants of inequalities in the health system in many countries are social determinants. Marmot et al (2010) concur, stating that health inequalities arise from social inequalities, besides strongly arguing that health inequalities concern fairness and social justice and identifying a social gradient in health where low social position translate to poorer health. Bartley (2004, p. 9) reviews the explanations from early public health research as to why public health inequalities exist and persist in society. The first reason put forward from research is a material interpretation where the low income from various sections of the society is the cause of their health disposition and by extension, the health conditions gap from other sections of the society. A cultural-behavioural explanation claims that certain lifestyles among the less privileged sections of the society promote health deterioration such as smoking and unhealthy diets. The third explanation is selection where people with poor health in their childhood would end up in less privileged social classes, where the pattern of being at the lower spectrum of the health system would continue. Bartley (2004, p. 12) then proceeds to review the contemporary explanations. The psychosocial model focuses on the effects of stressful conditions either at work, home or due to a low social status. It has been demonstrated from research that societies in which there are huge differences between the incomes of the rich and the poor experience less health inequalities as compared to societies with greater income gaps. The explanation behind this is that in such societies, the social relationships in the population are more favorable for health conditions than where incomes tend towards inequality. The life-course approach explains that chances for good and poor health are influenced by prenatal and neonatal factors. The neomaterialist explanation argues that countries in which the gap between the poor and the rich are smaller exhibit tendency towards generosity to the less fortunate, alongside better public health, education and transport systems. Reflection on Public Health Inequality The information from literature on public health inequalities evoke personal interest and reflective critique which I can analyse appropriately through the DEADACRE framework. To begin with the description of how I feel, the issue of public health ine ...
Cite this document
(“Public Health Inequality: Cognitive Discussion and Reflection Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/48455-analysing-public-health-essay
(Public Health Inequality: Cognitive Discussion and Reflection Essay)
“Public Health Inequality: Cognitive Discussion and Reflection Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/48455-analysing-public-health-essay.
The researcher of this study aims to pay special attention to the two approaches - behaviour change and policy change approaches to mental health promotion in terms of how they fit into a general health promotion model. An in-depth reflection on the course and this study will then be undertaken, followed by a conclusion.
When we compare whites and blacks in terms of income, whites have higher incomes and lower mortality rates. This is also evidence in places where the population has a large portion of blacks. These places are relatively high in both mortality and income inequality.
There are conflicting definitions of health inequality. Some people just refer to it as disparity, inequity or inequality depending on their understanding of the word. This is evident, in various people in the world. Health disparities causes are complex but can be tackled in one way or another.
The concept of 'health' is open to differing interpretations. The bio-medical perspective on health focuses on presence or absence of diagnosed diseases, but broader definitions include the idea of health as 'a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity' (Curtis, 2004, p 1-2).
166 and 167). At the same time, reducing health inequalities has been incorporated into Italy's 2000-2000 National Health Plan and Sweden is developing a health strategy structured around measurable equity targets (Ministero della Sanita, 2000; National Public Health Commission, 2000).
The results will indicate that most racial and ethnic disparities in health and access to health care disappear once we control the socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, employment status and characteristics of the job and geographic location among other things.
Health inequality is a major public health concern not only in developing counties but also in developed country like UK. According to the WHO (2010), health inequality is defined as "differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between
As a matter of fact, it is the mostly populated country in the whole world. For this reasons, the Government has implemented a number of policies to counter the high population growth and resulting challenges. However, this has not been very much