Traditionally TMM’s of agar gel combined with graphite has been utilized as it possesses a speed of sound of 1540m/s and similar attenuation coefficients to soft tissues (Goldstein, 2000 and Dudley et al 2002). However, graphite/agar TMM’s tend to have a limit to its productive life as the gel tends to deteriorate. To overcome this problem other materials have been tested namely evaporated milk and urethane rubber. The study by Goldstein (200) suggests that although urethane rubber phantoms have a long useful life (in comparison to agar gel) their acoustic velocities are much lower than 1540m/s and concludes that such phantoms should not be used to check distance measurement accuracies of transducers or focusing performance in a clinical setting. On the other hand, Dudely et al (2002) highlight the point that all TMM’s cannot be reliable when utilized to predict clinical focusing performance because real tissues are inhomogeneous and not truly represented. Hoskins et al (2003) support this by reminding us that the soft tissue velocities vary around the mean value of 1540m/s approximately five percent which can lead to distortions in measurements of an image.A number of reasons for electing a TMM will come into play and may involve availability, durability, and expense. Whichever TMM is adopted the tissue mimicking phantom will still aim to test certain parameters of the performance of the system. Some of these include sensitivity, dead space, resolution, and calibration (Gent 1997)....
Phantom can be means of achieving this. Additionally basic physical principles and imperfections need to be considered when constructing the phantom itself. Phantoms Gent (1997) characterizes an US phantom as a device that permits qualification and testing of the various aspects of an US system performance and transducer. Furthermore phantoms are able to demonstrate limitations and artifacts of the equipment (Gent 1997). Test phantoms play a fundamental role in quality control and performance testing. Browne et al (2002) suggest phantoms should be tissue mimicking however, the literature provides a number of phantom types. These include fluid filled phantoms, thin film test objects with digital scatters (Phillips and Parker 1998) and digital image analysis converters (Zdero et al 2002). It is beyond the scope of this assignment to discuss the merits and drawbacks of each individual test object therefore expansion on the most commonly used phantom- tissue equivalent/tissue mimicking phantoms (Browne et al 2002) will be discussed. This is the type of phantom which will attempt to be constructed. Tissue mimicking phantoms should possess certain characteristics namely; 1) Similar scattering properties and echogenicity often compared to that of the liver. 2) Equivalent attenuation co-efficient to soft tissue (Gent, 1997) 3) Comparative acoustic velocity to the speed of sound in soft tissues, 1540m/s (Browne et al 2002). Numerous mediums can be utilized in order to achieve such properties which are often referred to as tissue mimicking materials. Tissue-Mimicking Materials Traditionally TMM’s of agar gel combined with graphite has been utilized as it possesses a speed of sound of 1540m/s and similar
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