2007). Similarly, the RSA cryptography standard is associated with a Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) that highlights data encryption by utilizing RSA algorithm. The primary objective or reason for this standard is the construction of digital envelops and digital signatures. Moreover, the standard also defines syntax for private and publics keys of RSA. The syntax is utilized for digital certificates and the syntax for private keys is utilized for private key encryption (RSA Cryptography Standard. 2007). Public key cryptography relies on algorithms associated with asymmetric cryptography along with two incorporated keys i.e. a public key and a private key. Likewise, these two keys are separate and are utilized for decrypting and encrypting data or messages. If any user composes an electronic mail, he or she possesses a private for the email themselves. However, if the sender tries to open the email, he or she must possess a public key for accessing it. RSA public key encryption algorithm converts the private key to public key. Moreover, a signature algorithm that ensures authenticity of the sender can be incorporated with the private key without the intervention of the private key, as fundamentally it will not be possible to search two messages possessing similar signatures. The PKCS incorporates different versions such as v 2.1 standards that are associated with deploying public key cryptographic encryption along with digital signatures with appendix. Moreover, it also reflects ANS.1 syntax that illustrates keys for identifying different schemes. RSA is basically a public key algorithm that is invented by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman (Biskup) and is focused on an exponentiation module that comprises of two great prime numbers. Likewise, the security incorporated in RSA algorithm is focused on the solidity of multiplying the procedure associated with great prime numbers. Moreover, in the next version i.e. version 2.1, RSA multiprime function was incorporated. The table 1.1 shows the encryption and decryption of messages by private and public keys. Activity Keys Sending an Encrypted Message or data Utilizing the receivers public key Sending an encrypted signature Utilizing the sender’s private key Decrypting an encrypted message Utilizing the receivers private key Decrypting an encrypted signature Utilizing the sender’s public key Figure 1.1 Comparison X.509 and PGP X.509 is considered to be an ITU-T standard that is known for Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Likewise, it specifies standardized formats associated with public key certificates and a validation algorithm for certification path. Moreover, this standard was preliminary developed in 1988 and was integrated with X.500 standard (X.509. 2007). After the integration, it was considered to be a solid hierarchical mechanism of Certificate Authorities (CA) that is responsible for issuing certificates. It is a fact that X.500 system was not completely deployed, as the IETF working group associated with public key infrastructure has acquired the standard for Internet that is considered to be a flexible environment (X.509. 2007). Besides, in the year 1998, PGP was considered to be a relatively low cost solution possessing features such as robust file, disk and email encryption suite that is based on Network
Introduction Standards are developed for simplifying compatibility issues, as different PKI users configure and operate on different PKI infrastructures. Moreover, security will not be guaranteed, as users may incorporate vulnerable PKI resulting in security breaches and other hacking activities…
Usually, attackers utilize bots as a means to contaminate huge numbers of personal computers, which eventually form a large network, which is known as a botnet (Craig 2007). Botnets are more often used by attackers to multiply viruses on networks, to hit servers and computers and even to commit various criminal acts.
An adage goes that experience is the best teacher. Driving is a routine which can teach an avid programmer how to get along with a computer system. Thus, a curious programmer should be able to observe how the four operations of the machine cycle namely, fetch, decode, store and execute relate to driving a car especially to unknown location.
Much has been written and said about the intellectual property controversies surrounding PHP. Yet, the problem of intellectual rights protection continues to persist. Despite the fact that intellectual rights controversies negatively impact the pace of open source application development in all parts of the world, the significance of open source software can hardly be ignored.
It helps in securing gateway-to-gateway connection. It is designed to protect the user’s data when connected over the network through Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN). It is a flexible security solution when connected through network.
CFAA deals with penalties for the intruders who gain access to sensitive information stored in a computer without authorized access. Computers have to be protected when the consumers carry out commercial activities, engage in cross-border e-commerce, and make online business transactions and email communications with online traders.
The system has to be examined thoroughly for one to obtain evidence regarding BIOS clock alteration. A smart approach would be to focus on the time stamps for entries in the computer. It may be possible to detect changed time by analyzing cached files and internet history records on a computer.
In fact, the structure of an organization is represented in any industry through its Information Systems, be it retailing companies, military establishments or b2b solutions. For example, in medium and big retailing companies, there are multi-tier structures, which include industrial production, wholesalers, retailers and consumers as well along with intermediate stores, which require an integrated information system.
"Strategic information management represents a move away from conventional business thinking and practice". http://www.paconsulting.com/insights/managing_for_shareholder_value/services/entry_msv_04_strategic_information_management.htm
The majority scholars might concur that we are by now well on our way through the conversion from an industrial economy to an information economy.
Its job is to use various processes to promote that particular industry.
A trade association can now use the Internet to provide online training to its members. This can be offered to members who are local and those who live around the world. This can only be possible due to technology.
One such invention is the advent of the Information Communication Technology (ICT)". This is actually a wide subject that covers communication apparatus and their applications. ICT covers the electronic media including televisions, radio, cell phones, internet and computer (both software and hardware aspects), the satellite system as well as all applications that are related to these machinery.
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