The digital television is a much advanced system wherein users can disturbance free audio and visual signals while achieving much higher spectrum efficiency than analog televisions (WU, Hirakwa and Reimers) Evolution of Television:- European and North American inventors pioneered the TV. Television is a hybrid word coming from the Greek letter ‘ Tele’ meaning far, and Latin word ‘visio’ meaning sight. 1) Monochrome TVs: - These early generation televisions were mostly based on electrochemical systems. The screen had a small motor with a spinning disc and a neon lamp which gave a reddish orange picture comparable in size to a business card (Udelson). The system continued to evolve with the inception of a line system to improve the results of the TV. In 1937 the 405 line monochrome system, known then as the ‘HD’, was selected as the UK standard of television. By 1950, most European countries had the 625 scanning lines, 25 frame per second, TV system as standard. Meanwhile, plenty of experimentation was taking place in the USA, however, the Federal communications commission was not satisfied with the quality of the systems and work on development of the system continued. In 1942, the FCC endorsed the efforts of the National television systems committee and established a standard of 525 scanning lines with 60 frames per second. (Pitchard and Gibson) 2) The advent of Color TV: - During the 1940s, various color television systems were proposed and demonstrated in the United States. The first color television was developed in the early 1950s by the national television systems committee and submitted to the federal communication commission in 1953. Color TV was not successful in the United States until a decade of its introduction. Few color TVs were sold because they were expensive and there were not many programs televised in color. Time magazine even called color TV as ‘the most resounding industrial flop of 1956’. Slowly but surely, however, color TV started to thrive when color programs started to show up in abundance. European countries delayed adoption of color TVs and continuously worked to find alternative systems for the same function. Later on, the PAL(phase alteration line) systems were developed and adopted by numerous countries in Europe including the United Kingdom. (Udelson) Analog TVs and the march towards digitized broadcasting:- There were several projects that led to the shift from analog to digital tv systems. This march went on for years and involved various researches and experiments. Some of the key projects that led to this change include Japan Broadcasting corporation HDTV in Japan, Euraka EU 95 project and PALplus in Europe, and advanced compatible television in the United States (WU, Hirakwa and Reimers) 1) Japan NHK HDTV:- the NHK established the concept of High definition television as a system suitable for viewing television at around three times the picture height, having twice the horizontal and vertical resolution compared to the conventional TV systems and a wide aspect ratio. In the early 1980s, NHK had developed most of the production equipment necessary for producing HD TV programs. In 1983, the NHK developed a system called MUSE which compressed signal bandwidth from 30.1MHz down to 8.1MHz. Through frequency modulation, this allowed the transmission of HD signals by using only one transponder.
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