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Metaphor in Korean and Arab Culture - Essay Example

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Metaphor in Korean and Arab Culture

The modern theory of cognitive metaphor is developed in the works of many scholars, in accordance with which, “metaphor is an instrument of cognition, structuring and explanation of reality” (Lakoff, 1993, p. 217). Following J. Lakoff, we agree that “metaphor is located in thought and not in the language”. Metaphor is a source for something new and interesting. There is a certain cultural background in different metaphors because they reflect specific needs of target audience and key issues of life of different nations turn into the sources for further metaphorical derivates. For example, metaphors in American English are often associated with sports because active way of life has been always highly estimated among the Americans (Deignan, Gabrys, & Solska, 1997). Food metaphor is more appropriate for Chinese English because the nation is highly concerned about meals. Thus, family dinners on weekends symbolize unity and dominance of family. Sometimes, metaphors interpretations are similar or different. Thus, Chinese use sports metaphors and Americans use metaphors about food and the meaning of them would be the same. For example, in Chinese: “One cannot learn to swim in shallow water” meaning that one should go through thick and thin in order to become a professional. For Americans, a metaphor “to eat a piece of cake” meaning to get easy job. In accordance with J. Fauconnie and M. Therner, the essence of conceptual integration comprises the following: once a metaphor spawns, two sections of brain responsible for visual and abstract images are activated (Fauconnier, 1998, pp. 133-179). With regard to one of the claims of a cognitive metaphor theory: the principles of metaphorization processes are based on knowledge interpretation procedures, reflected in cognitive construction–frames (specific unified constructs of knowledge or experience connected by mental reflections) and scenarios (a generalized dynamic experience of human interaction with the world). A frame is characterized by “encyclopedicity”, i.e. cluster of various structurally generalized kinds of knowledge about a referent. Frames include basic, typical and potentially possible information associated with the concept. Frames can be inherent; they can emerge in the process of individual cognition or can be adopted via learning. Currently, the “theory of conceptual blending” is of high relevance. This theory was derived by A. Richards (1990) and has been followed by J. Fauconnie and M. Therner. The essence of conceptual integration comprises the following: once a metaphor spawns, two sections of brain responsible for visual and abstract images are activated (Fauconnier, 1998, pp. 133-179). Further metaphors in Arab and Korean languages are considered with respect to developments in the field of cognitive metaphor. It is supposed that two frames are actualized. Elements of these frames can have nothing in common, but creation of a new metaphoric derivative happens as follows: Figure 1. Algorithm of a new metaphoric derivative creation Further considerations are about metaphors in Korean and Arab cultures. The Korean culture has the following key collective values, for example, social harmony, respect and mutual cooperation. Western culture is ...Show more

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Metaphor in Korean and Arab culture [Name] [Date] Abstract This paper deals with metaphor and its important role in languages and cultures of different nations. Further on metaphor is considered in English, Korean and Arabic cultures. Metaphor is positioned as a means of cognition and reflection of sociological and cultural peculiarities of different nations…
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Metaphor in Korean and Arab Culture essay example
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