Through the actions and replies of Tom Robinson, Lee clearly shows that Tom is a courageous person who is not hesitating in telling the truth. And the scene in the courtroom clearly shows that true courage still prevails in the society and according to Lee people who would not be afraid or guilty of a crime would definitely use their power of true courage against the society. Lee in Chapter 19 is also stressing on the realms of racism and stereotyping. Racism, as practiced in the society against blacks, is seen in the courtroom as told by Lee. This can be clearly seen in the character of Mr. Gilmer when he cross-examines Tom Robinson. It is seen how Mr. Gilmer makes a mockery of Tom’s story. It is seen that even the judge is not objecting to Tom Robinson’s treatment by Mr. Gilmer. These racist comments passed by the lawyer against Tom Robinson clearly depict the theme of racism as being practiced in the society against the blacks. Similarly, Stereotyping also can be witnessed here as the judges in the courtroom were not paying any particular heed to Tom Robinson’s plea as blacks automatically are considered to be criminals. Therefore it can be said that Chapter 19 is the amalgamation of all these themes together to give out a masterpiece which co-relates the judgment and the main theme of the whole story.
Chapter 19 best portrays the theme of true courage and its use as a shield in the whole story. In this Chapter, it can be seen that Atticus is fighting to prove that Tom is innocent and is being framed up by Mayella Ewell. An example can be quoted here of how Atticus has courage from Chapter 23, when “Mr. Ewell approached him, cursed him, spat on him, and threatened to kill him.” (Lee 217) If Atticus didn’t fight for Tom Robinson this wouldn’t have happened. This was after the trial ended. Another act of courage came from Tom Robinson. Tom Robinson told his story with no lies in it and stayed strong throughout the case.