There, the three monotheist religions concur, God made himself manifest, principally through Moses, the prophet. And they agree that God further revealed himself and his will in other documents: the New Testament and Christ, for Christianity, the Qur’an and Muhammad, for Islam, and the Oral Torah and its sages, for Judaism, respectively. The three monotheisms, further, confront one and the same problem, and the basic logic of monotheism dictates the range of solutions that each of the monotheisms addresses: the problem of God’s justice and mercy and how these are to be reconciled with the condition of the everyday world. A religion of numerous gods finds many solutions to one problem; a religion of only one God presents one to many. Life is seldom fair. Rules rarely work. To explain the reason why, polytheisms adduce multiple causes of chaos, a god per anomaly. Diverse gods do various things, so, it stands to reason, ordinarily outcomes conflict. Monotheism by nature explains many things in a single way. One God rules. Life is meant to be fair, and just rules are supposed to describe what is ordinary, all in the name of that one and only God. So in monotheism a simple logic governs to limit ways of making sense of things. But that logic contains its own dialectics. If one true God has done everything, then, since he is God all-powerful and omniscient, all things are credited to and blamed on him. In that case he can be either good or bad, just or unjust but not both. Within that framework, the three monotheisms pursue their distinctive expressions of the common faith in the one and only God, just and merciful, who created the world and made himself known through men of his choice and words of his own selection. (Paul Mojzes, Leonard Swidler, 2002)
Judaism and Islam concur that culture and society cohere with religion, so there is no distinction between secularity and religiosity, state and church such as Christianity from Constantine's time forward contemplated. They in particular sustain comparison because they are sufficiently congruent in basic, indicative traits for the exercise to yield revealing contrast: alike, and then not alike, in that order. Both are religions of law, both monotheisms conceive of God in the same terms, both place heavy stress upon the formation of a society that conforms to God's will, expressed in verbal revelation having to do with social norms, and both set forth through jurisprudence an elaborate and articulated message.
Different from all other religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam share a common belief in one, unique God, creator of heaven and earth, whose self-manifestation is achieved through particular prophets, beginning with Moses, continuing, for Christianity and Islam, with Jesus, and ending, for Islam, with Muhammad. So far as Judaism is the religion of the written Torah, Christianity tells the story of Judaism within its own narrative, and Islam takes account of the stories of both Judaism and Christianity. For its part, Judaism in the confrontation with triumphant Christianity and Islam had to take account of the claim of the newcomers to worship the one and only God who made Himself known to holy Israel at Sinai. And Judaism did not classify the new monotheisms as idolatry, which category encompassed all other religions through all time. It follows that the three monotheisms accord recognition to one another, if not always unambiguously and if never enthusiastically. Not only so, but all three accord special status to the Hebrew scriptures of ancient Israel. All