It may manifest as an unmotivated individual, unreasonable expectations of entitlement, procrastination, manipulation, or simply not doing what should be done. Society is impacted by disrupted production schedules, co-worker animosity, missed work, and the eventual firing of the lazy person. This paper will review some of the current literature in regards to laziness and report the findings as to the cause, effects, and implications of laziness.
While there are significant differences in the self-perception of procrastinators and non-procrastinators, research has not shown the cause of these differences. A comprehensive study by Ferrari, Driscole, and Diaz-Morales, reported that, "procrastinators have negative feelings about their actual self-concept faculties and self-presentation tactics", and that "they are not pleased by how they view themselves, similar to the perceptions reported by observers of their behaviors" (120). However, the research did not report whether procrastination was the cause or the effect of the negative self-concept. In two studies that involved Turkish students that procrastinated academic tasks, fear of failure was the main reason cited for delaying a task (Ozer, Demir, and Ferrari 245, 251). This would indicate that a low self-esteem is a cause of procrastination. As long as the victim does not start the task, there is no failure, and they won't be the subjects of ridicule. In addition, women showed a greater fear of failure that resulted in procrastination than men (Ozer, Demir, and Ferrari 253). This is in line with the female difference that tends to be more avoidant of fear from an early age. A second reason cited by men for procrastinating, rebellion against control, was not a major reason for female avoidance (Ozer, Demir, and Ferrari 253). In addition to these active procrastinators, some people are passive procrastinators. They are victims of themselves and "do not intend to procrastinate, but they often end up postponing tasks because of their inability to make decisions quickly and to thereby act on them quickly" (Chu and Choi 247). Still, poor self-image and a fear of failure are the main reasons driving both male and female procrastination.
Laziness may be quantified by the degree to which a person feels entitled to a reward without regards to their productive output. In workplace studies, it has been reported that "women generally earn less than men and report less income entitlement than men do" (Ciani, Summers, and Easter 333). From this point of view, men have a greater expectation of entitlement for the same performance or output. Taken to the logical extension, men would be more likely to have someone support them, a spouse, trust fund, or the system, even though society views them as deviant. This is a classical definition of laziness in regards to work, and may generalize to other areas of a person's life. Ciani, Summers, and Easter report that "today's college students are more selfish, superficial, and narcissistic than ever before" (332). These students have been self-inflated throughout grade school and high school, and they enter college with a sense of entitlement to grades, resulting in grade inflation across the country (Ciani, Summers, and Easter 333). Once again, in the academic setting, men were more likely to feel a greater sense of entitlem