Hill and Hupe stated that oftentimes, the informational bases are basically incomplete, and these cannot be totally identified and revealed ex ante. The main sources of this plurality are to be found in the combination of the agents' practices and of the beneficiaries' individual situations which goes against the top-down rules that major institutions strike to impose. In effect, the assessment aspect to be done by local actors cannot be specified prior to the action on the basis of predefined categories. Hence, it is inherently important to take into consideration the black box of implementation, where indigenous informational bases emerge, either as routine actions in order to support the outer informational bases of judgement in justice, or so as to change the sense of action (Hill and Hupe 2002).
The studies of policy implementation are done by those who have an interest either in political science, or in public administration and public policy. This assertion stems from the fact that a core understanding of implementation as an inherent portion of the public policy process must gather and connect theories from these fields of knowledge.
The Hill and Hupe reference material basically summarizes the implementation research and link it to som...
There is an enormous and diverse research literature on public policy implementation research. However, the major problem is the process of extracting knowledge from the available information that is already documented. Given the phenomenal growth in the implementation research literature, the need for knowledge extraction is acute. The procedures and techniques have been developed for the past 25 years. The time to initiate efforts toward synthesizing the policy implementation literature is now.
Another area of concern in public policy is the translation of a new policy into local behavior. This is also a major concern for the implementation literature, which tackles change from an administrative perspective. The concept of an implementation deficit implies that the introduction of a new policy also signals the start of a complicated process of effecting genuine change in behaviour (Hargrove, 1985). The key questions posed there are: why is successful implementation difficult to achieve How are unique changes in behavioural patterns attained after the introduction of a new policy
In related studies, the national government has been seen as the policy formulator and local governments the implementers (Li, 2005). Hence, change failed to take place either because there is a dearth of good ideas from the national government (due to incapable policymakers, evolving power struggles among politicians and party members), or because the ideas are not implemented to the lower levels of the state hierarchy. Policy implementation had failed because local agents pursue their personal goals and self-interests and monitoring from the national leaders had failed.
The Hill and Hupe argument