The security of the aviation sector has been significantly strengthened over the past several years through the efforts of the Federal government working with State, local, and tribal governments, the international community, and the private sector, but One of the major steps taken was when in June 2006 President ordered the development of a comprehensive National Strategy for Aviation Security in which the Secretary of Homeland Security, in accordance with challenges identified in NSPD-47 and HSPD-16, was to coordinate the operational implementation of seven supporting plans.
These plans are Aviation Transportation System Security Plan, Aviation Operational Threat Response Plan, Aviation Transportation System Recovery Plan, Air Domain Surveillance and Intelligence Integration Plan, International Aviation Threat Reduction Plan, Domestic Outreach Plan, and International Outreach Plan.
Other plans such as Alien Flight Student Program were also implemented (AFSP) to ensure that foreign students seeking training at flight schools regulated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are not to be given flight training until Secretary of Homeland Security first determines that doing so will not pose a threat to aviation or national security. Although such plans might seem rude, but it's a necessary impoliteness to ensure safety.
Q2: The Q2: The greatest threat faced by the United States aviation after the tragic event of September 11, 2001 at present is terrorism, and this incident can serve as the best case in point of the amount of damage and chaos that can be caused due to threats to aviation security. This can also serve as an example as to how with enhancements in security measures, terrorists have also shown ability to evolve and exploit weaknesses, and the amount of damage they can cause due to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
All aircraft are under threat of onboard bombs, hijacking and use of standoff weapons, and these aircrafts can also be used as weapons to disrupt aviation transport system as mentioned in above example.
Use of such unconventional attack methods by terrorists is not a recent phenomenon. Decade of 1970s has been a witness to it. Hijacking of Trans World Airlines Flight 847 in 1985; hijacking of Pan Am Flight 73 in 1986 in Karachi, Pakistan; the destruction of Pan Am Flight 103 over Scotland in 1988 are just a few examples of religious extremism and state-sponsored terrorism.
Interest to instigate terrorism can lie with terrorist groups, who are politically and religiously motivated, and kill civilians indiscriminately to fuel propaganda campaigns. Over time their capabilities have increased due to advancement in technology. It can lie with hostile nations, who have aggressive intentions and support terrorism.
Some nations which are politically and economically weak, have weak infrastructure and leadership, can be host to terrorist groups unknowingly. Some domestic criminals with detailed knowledge of aviation sector can also be a great threat if exploited by external elements. Thus it is the need of the hour that United States take preemptive measures to counter terrorism threats, because although financial loss is great and can be recovered, but lives lost have no price.
Q3: In United States, airport security is not controlled centrally, but is managed at state or local