Ectopic pregnancy occurs in various places such as cervix, ovaries, peritoneal cavity, or interstitial tissue but more than 96% of all ectopic cases occur in the fallopian tubes (McCulloch 2007 and Togas 2006). This tube is in-charged of carrying fertilized ovum from the ovary down to the uterus ('Ectopic Pregnancy'). However, when the fertilized ovum implants and grows inside the fallopian tube, this will weaken the wall and eventually rupture the tube (McCulloch 2007). A ruptured ectopic pregnancy is a true medical emergency. It is the leading cause for 10 to 15 percent of all maternal deaths (Tenore 2000).
In 2001, the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD) 2001 reported that there are 5 women who die every single year from ectopic pregnancy. The report also revealed that one of the main reasons of maternal death was due to substandard care and the failure to detect early ectopic pregnancy. Indeed, it is important to be aware of the predisposing risk factors as well as investigate early signs and symptoms of ectopic pregnancy to prevent further mortality rates ('The Ectopic Pregnancy Trust').
There are a lot of predisposing risk factors associated with ectopic pregnancy and this include current or previous pelvic infection, primary infertility, history of ectopic pregnancy, prior tubal surgery, endometriosis, a history of abdominal or pelvic surgery, acute appendicitis, in-utero exposure to DES, vaginal douching, smoking, progestin pills, and use of an intrauterine device (IUD) (Tenore 2000 and Tay et al. 2000). In addition, assisted reproductive technology may compromise tubal structure and function which increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy. These include ovulatory induction medications, and in-vitro fertilization, or gamete intrafallopian transfer (McCulloch 2007). Here is a case study describing the experience of having an ectopic pregnancy.
A 33year old female had been trying to conceive for four years, became pregnant with the help of fertility treatment (do not have details). At five weeks into her pregnancy she began to have one-sided pain and slight spotting. She was seen by her own consultant, follow-up tests were given, pregnancy test which was positive, a beta-Hcg test and a scan which showed her uterus to be empty. Later the same afternoon this lady was taken to the operating theatre and anaesthetised with cricoid pressure because she had eaten. A laparoscopy was carried out which show that she had ruptured tube. She lost her baby and one of fallopian tubes, which reduced her conceiving again by approximately 50% because she only has one fallopian tube now. This lady life was saved, but she was in grief for her lost child. She stays in the care of the hospital for two days, before going home under the care of the consultant. Her care has not been carried out by the NHS. This was her wishes.
According to biopsychoscocial model, the patient's perception of ectopic pregnancy arises from a combination of her biological, emotional state, and concomitant social determinants. This model explains the phenomenon of signs and symptoms associated with ectopic pregnancy shifting to the patient's underlying psychological or social concerns (Geri et al. 2000 and Lakhan 2006).
In the case study above, the patient was described to receive fertility treatme