This review will then investigate the observed impact of NPM on the health sector and the effects of adopting market-oriented concepts, as reported in a study conducted by the World Bank (p.13)
Moreover, NPM will be a viable reference because it has been documented to influence the financial policies of many governments. Policy issues directly affect public institutions like hospitals because reduced funding restrictions - a reality in many countries and one of the benefits of the NPM approach - will ultimately have an effect at the operational level. That is, hospitals may be compelled to improve procedures and practices, especially in terms of resource allocation, but they must also strive to improve the level of customer satisfaction. The market orientation of the NPM model will be particularly helpful in this area.
Thus, with NPM theories as basis, this review will proceed to investigate process level concepts that are also oriented towards efficiency (p.15), which include action research, clinical pathways, service redesign, and operations management. The final section (p.18) looks at several initiatives that aimed to improve operations and practices in hospitals and especially, in operating theatres. The sources cited in this review are summarized in Table 1.
DisTable 1. Summary of Reviewed Literature
The Global Influence of New Public Management: Case Studies from Africa
Explains the use of NPM in several African countries, with special focus on the importance of capacity building, especially in developing countries where governance issues remain a major challenge.
The Impact of Systems Redesign on Staff, Patient, and Financial Outcomes
Discusses the findings of a study introducing "inpatient bed consolidation" and "patient population reaagregation" in a U.S. hospital and how such change initiatives affect staff, patients, and financial performance.
New Public Management, North American Style
Lists the characteristics of NPM and how it has influenced the governments of the U.S. and other developed countries in attempts to reform the public sector.
Provides a useful general reference for managers wanting to undertake action resarch, from planning to reporting.
Increasing Institutional and Administrative Capacity
Establishes the importance of institutional and administrative capacity in socio-economic development programmes, debating the impacts of NPM especially in developed countries.
Khaleghian and Das Gupta
Public Management and the Essential Public Health Functions
Discusses attempts to improve the public sector and their impacts on providing health services, including adoption of NPM concepts.
Optimizing Patient Flow in the Enterprise
Explains how use of technology can enhance hospital operations and