Moreover political corruption was prevailed to the full extend, and the entire Mediterranean suffered from the inefficient administration of Rome.
Just about since 133 B.C. in Rome itself had began continuous period of disorders. Politics, generals and demagogues fought for the power. Partisan armies (such as army of Marius in 87 B.C. and the army of Sulla in 82 B.C.) passed Rome marching. Although the Senate's incapacity to govern was clear to everybody, the majority of Roman citizens wanted to restore the republic government. Julius Caesar was, probably, the first political leader, who clearly understood, that this government was no longer worth of being preserved.
Caesar came from the family of patricians, which itself had been originated from Julus - the son of Aeneas, the legendary Trojan hero, who had been born by the goddess named Aphrodite (Venus). Having such renowned ancestors, it was rather simple to Caesar to get a high post in the Roman republic. However, following the family tradition he became a priest of Jupiter, the supreme God of Rome. Strict rules forbade him to leave the city more than for two nights, to divorce with the wife, and to take weapon in his hands. But Julius's fate predetermined the other.
Roman politics was divided between two factions, the optimates, who favored aristocratic rule, and the populares, who preferred to appeal directly to the electorate. He became one of the leaders of the populares party, but his patrician origin prevented him from holding the position of tribune, which Caesar had so much wished for. The majority of Caesar's family belonged to the senatorial party of optimates, which represented the interests of old aristocracy. However, Caesar from the very beginning of his political career joined to populares. The reason for this was his kinship to Gaius Marius, a great soldier, whose outstanding career had become an exemplar for young Julius. Caesar' mother Aurelia Cotta occurred from the notable patrician family, and was a real example of Roman matron, whose strictness and exactingness helped to bring her son up as a real soldier and statesman. They lived in a modest house in the Subura, a lower class neighborhood of Rome2, where Marcus Antonius Gnipho, an orator and grammarian, who originally came from Gaul, was employed as Caesar's tutor.
He got a good education and went in for politics in his youth. In 68 B.C. Caesar became the quaestor. His main responsibility was to control the state exchequer and finances. From now it gave him the right to be named the Senator. On being appointed to the position of Aedile, whose responsibility was