There would be safer swimming opportunities, and improved conditions on surfing. It is important that these benefits are for all the local community members and the surfers as well. From the results found, management and guidelines for the appraisal of coastal defence projects should be amended to incorporate non-market amenity benefits. The integration of the planning and management of the coastal land and associated inshore waters are the strategic and comprehensive attempts at the issues affecting the country's coastline. Since coastal defence has been unplanned in the past 10 years, a more strategic approach had been taken through the Shoreline Management Plan and the Coastal Defence Strategies.
The protection of coastal land and the communities from the destruction of the sea is a major concern all over the world. Climate change and the predicted rise in sea levels are likely to further the concern in the future. In England, the estimate of over one million properties valued at over 130 billion are at risk from coastal flooding, 113,000 properties valued at 7.7 billion for coastal erosion. ...Show more