There would be safer swimming opportunities, and improved conditions on surfing. It is important that these benefits are for all the local community members and the surfers as well. From the results found, management and guidelines for the appraisal of coastal defence projects should be amended to incorporate non-market amenity benefits. The integration of the planning and management of the coastal land and associated inshore waters are the strategic and comprehensive attempts at the issues affecting the country's coastline. Since coastal defence has been unplanned in the past 10 years, a more strategic approach had been taken through the Shoreline Management Plan and the Coastal Defence Strategies.
The protection of coastal land and the communities from the destruction of the sea is a major concern all over the world. Climate change and the predicted rise in sea levels are likely to further the concern in the future. In England, the estimate of over one million properties valued at over 130 billion are at risk from coastal flooding, 113,000 properties valued at 7.7 billion for coastal erosion. ...
The good project appraisals are needed to ensure that the taxpayers would receive a good value for their money from coastal defence projects. Defra(then MAFF) in the UK had produced a series of flood and coastal defence projects and this includes a guidance documents for the appraisal of projects. The supplementary note does not address the changes made, the interim guidance does not address one of the key changes made in the revised book namely the incorporation of values for the non-market and environmental benefits and costs that are associated with flood and the coastal defence projects. One method of sea defence is groynes. Groynes are used in the UK and all over the world to prevent coastal erosion The use of timber, stones, concrete or steel in the construction of groynes. These are used to prevent "longshore" drift and to restore beach volume. It had been proven that the use of groynes play an important role in the protection of coastal system on shingle beaches and that groynes can be a very good form of coastal management. The use of timber groynes declined by the introduction of beach nourishment scheme, moreover, timber groynes have poor characteristics that are susceptible to the creation of rip channels as well as higher levels of reflection than rock groynes. Rock had become a popular choice of construction material for groynes. The main reason for this is the intrinsic property to dissipate wave length energy and low levels of reflection. Rock groynes demonstrates more effectively than timber groynes, specifically on mixed sand and shingle beaches. Groynes are often regarded as unattractive. Houses uses the seawall as sea defence. The overflow of sea water is being prevented by the seawall. That is when water flows over the