Exactly what is a "real" manager What should we call managers who work with their staff and learn from them as well-"invalid," "false," or "imitation," as opposed to "real" Are academics and management consultants actually determining current management methods or is the method determined by what is increasing profitability in all areas of an organisation based on cooperation among staff and knowledge of their customer base
Three of the most influential theorists in management at the beginning of the twentieth century were Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo and Henri Fayol. Taylor applied scientific management using time and motion studies, with managers as observers who did not include workers in decision-making. His method, according to Sansone, was said to dehumanise workers. He set up a new effort of structure over people as a variable to improve performance rather than merely using discipline to increase production. Taylor believed managers should be thinkers, and that workers had to be guided by them.
Taylor and Fayol had similar ideas, with what has been called respectively Scientific Management and Administration Management, but Mayo was more concerned with the human side of business. His style was called the Human Relations approach (Sandrone). Mayo performed what he called Hawthorne experiments from 1927 to 1932 to examine effects of fatigue and monotony on work conditions and job productivity (Accel Team). By choosing two female workers and allowing them to pick four more, he set up his experiment. He assigned a manager who was more an observer than disciplinarian to study the group and make changes, discussing and explaining them to the group in advance. Variables such as rest breaks, work hours, temperature and humidity were studied. The surprising result for Mayo was that the employees who were included in decisions about working conditions produced more, no matter what the final working schedule was, because they had formed a team. This breakthrough is taken for granted now, but teamwork in an organisation was unknown at that time. According to Accel, Mayo's experiment showed the following reason for its success:
The experimental group had considerable freedom of movement . . . . Under these conditions they developed an increased sense of responsibility and instead of discipline from higher authority being imposed, it came from within the group.
(Accel Team 6.4)
Henri Fayol was a French management theorist who focused on management as fulfilling 5 principal roles: plan, organise, command, coordinate and control, and 14 principles of management in a hierarchal format (Marino). His ideas closely followed those of socialist Max Weber. Fayol was a successful senior manager who applied his formula for controlling his staff, and this formula is still actively practised today. Below are Fayol's 14 principles of administration (Overview 5)
Specialization/division of labor Centralisation
Authority with responsibility