During depressive periods, ruminating on a problem may assist an individual in understanding why feelings of depression exist and how difficult issues may be solved. This may be because ruminating usually involves mentally analyzing a problem to assist oneself in achieving a resolution.
However ruminating may be harmful as well, as "Women ruminate more than men, and rumination is a significant predictor of future depression even after the current level of depression is taken into account (citing Nolen-Hoeksema, Larson, & Grayson, 1999; Crawford & Unger 492).
As my short survey supports, women use distractions less than men when depressed, which may result in "less effective problem solving, and fewer attempts to seek help from others (citing Broderick & Korteland, 2002; Crawford & Unger 492). ...
This is unfortunate because distraction activities can entail engaging in activities the affected individual may enjoy, therefore, the result may be positively rewarding and assist in relieving a depressive state.
Distraction activities to relieve depression may also have a long-term negative impact in some cases, as the depressed individual may substitute drinking, or other destructive behaviors for positive activities that may aid in relieving depression. This may result in the depressive state returning as the negative behavior only acts as a short-term solution for the problem, and not a cure.
Possible Connection Between Cognitive Style and the Development of Major Depression
As indicated, women ruminate more than men do, and ruminating behavior is a "significant predictor" of major depression in the future (citing Nolen-Hoeksema, Larson, & Grayson, 1999; Crawford & Unger 492). A depressed mood may be extended by rumination and create cognitive biases which may create vulnerability for normal depression that may play a role in the onset of clinical depression.
Relationship Between Gender-Role Socialization, Gender Expectations, and Cognitive Style
Early socialization creates differences between males and females in dealing with problems, including depression. Girls are taught to consider the feelings of others during conflicts, and rumination about problems was not discouraged. Males have reported that as young boys they were ignored or punished when expressing feelings of sadness, while being told boys should not ruminate about conflicts or issues (citing Broderick & Korteland, 2002; Crawford & Unger 492). Power and status in society has a great