(Ahuja and Alsante, 2003; p.16)
Organic chemists define this science as the study of the "quantised interaction of electromagnetic radiations with matter" (Yadav, 2005; p.1). According to Yadav (2005), these electromagnetic emissions are created by the fluctuations of electric charges and the magnetic field existing in the atom. He further said that the various forms of electromagnetic radiation include ultraviolet, infrared, x-rays, microwaves, radio waves, and so on (Yadav, 2005; p.1).
There are four methods or measurement techniques used in spectroscopy. These are: mass spectroscopy, or MS; ultraviolet spectroscopy, or UV; infrared spectroscopy, or IR; and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or NMR. The common types of spectroscopy include: astronomical spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform spectroscopy, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and laser spectroscopy. (Flowers and Silver, 2004; p.953) A new technique, Raman spectroscopy, is now considered the fifth spectroscopic measurement technique (Smith and Dent, 2005; p.1)
The three main types of spectroscopy/spectrometry include: absorption spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy, and scattering ...
termines the sample's physical properties through the amount of light that the substance scatters at specific wavelengths, incident and polarization angles. The difference between scattering spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy lies in the fact that the scattering process is faster than the absorption or emission process (Flowers and Silver, 2004; p.953; Ahuja and Alsante, 2003; p.16).
Mass spectroscopy as a technique offers outstanding structural information of different substances. It can also be a useful tool in separating molecules with little differences in their molecular weight. However, if mass spectroscopy is used as a quantitative measurement technique, its uses can be limited (Ahuja and Alsante, 2003; p.16).
In ultraviolet spectroscopy, a sample substance is continuously irradiated with ultraviolet radiation of differing wavelengths. The power or energy which is related with the section of the electromagnetic spectrum matches the difference in power levels among various molecular orbitals. Ultraviolet radiation is created when a sample substance is exposed to a wavelength that equals the variation in energy between an occupied molecular orbital and an unoccupied molecular orbital. (Flowers and Silver, 2004; p.953) Ultraviolet spectroscopy, at a single wavelength, provides little selectivity of analysis (Ahuja and Alsante, 2003; p.16).
Infrared spectroscopy, according to Stuart (2004), is definitely one of the most significant analytical measurement techniques that are available to scientists nowadays. (Stuart, 2004; p.1) This method offers precise information for some functional substance groups that present selectivity and allow quantification. (Ahuja and Alsante, 2003; p.16) This technique is based on the atoms' vibrations within a molecule; where an