The existing forms of writing were not sufficient enough to be of much use to the Sumerian civilization in its advanced methods of calculation and of setting down thoughts. There were not enough symbols, pictures or word forms in the original modes of communication. Especially, writing was found to be a hindrance when the civilization advanced to the point of sending out trade expeditions to other lands. All of these factors encouraged an advanced form of writing to be developed in the Sumerian Civilization-one in which they could keep official records (McClellan 2006, p. 66-71).
Although the systems of the civilization were developing rapidly, there were not many Sumerians who had the ability to read and write. To overcome this problem, the people would hire the services of scribes who would read and write on their behalf. The main use of the written documents was the implementation of the legal system which first established and then further developed laws. The ruling King would make rules that could be consistently implemented throughout the region, as scribes would place their tablets throughout the city and the rules then could be uniformly applied (Sherman & Slaisbury 2008, p. 97-9). This process represented a major step forward.
The uses of writings developed beyond just alphabets as people used them to make scaled drawings of inventions, and also used the tablets to record and get the inventions named after them. For example, the first wheeled cart was developed as a drawing on one of the specific tablets. As time progressed, writing found its use in the form of record keeping, news developments, and many other written records put on Cuneiform tablets. The writings were enhanced- to be used, as codes of law and systems of practice, for the lower administrators as well as the general public (Avery 2003, p. 112-7).
2. What were the main political changes that took place in Greek society in the period 700 - 489 B.C. What were some of the causes of these changes
In the early seventh century, Greece operated on the legal code of Draco, which attempted to meet the needs that had developed from the dissatisfaction of the lower class due to the controlling power and the rule of the upper class. This conflict in interests resulted in a written code of governance for the lower class, which had become aggravated as the upper class had grown to make themselves forceful rulers of their regions-as when Cylon, for example, had seized the Acropolis (Sherman & Dennis 2008, p. 59-62).
This act was the basis of revolt in the 620 B.C by the lower class, and many of the leaders of the upper class were challenged. As the laws were perceived, by the lower class, to be tailored and invented overnight by the upper class, the lower class demanded to have the rules and policies be uniformly set down in written form, in the hope that they would be equally applied to all. In the same era, a judicial system based on appointed judges also came into existence, to be responsible for administering the laws irrespective of class. Courts were established so as to ensure the proper implementation of the laws and a system evolved to establish the political