The transformational leadership literature is limited to the effects of this leadership behaviour on the work related attitude of employees. There have not surprisingly been sufficient researches and studies on the analysis of transformational leadership effects in the event of organizational change. Because of the fact that transformational leadership is more about change (Bono and Anderson, 2005) than any other aspect of an organization, this gap is considered to be significant.
This literature review encompasses studies carried out by different authors. The first section of this review analyses the methodological approaches presented in the significant transformational leadership literature. The second section points out the knowledge gap limiting the scope of existing literature. This study endeavours to put forward the existing focus of available literature on transformational leadership and the limitations of the theory.
Most of the studies conducted in this regard could be propounded as based on positivist methodological approach. The literature on transformational leadership studied for this review predominantly utilises a systematic and scientific approach to conduct the research. Colquitt and Piccolo illuminate that transformational leadership theory generally encompasses four attributes of the behaviour exercised by a leader viz. idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration. These qualities range from a leader's charismatic personality to his visionary, risk-taking and understanding approach (2006, p. 329). The authors also adopt a positivist approach and show with the help of empirical analysis that transformational leaders have great impact on how employees perceive their jobs to be. Colquitt and Piccolo conclude that "followers of truly exceptional leaders regarded their jobs as more challenging and important." (2006, p. 334) The research basically relies on studying 283 individuals on the basis of cross-sectional analysis of different job categories. The authors also propose a model of transformational leadership and core job characteristic effects for the purpose of analysis.
Another significant study in this area include Bono and Judge (2003), who find with the help of scientific approach that transformational leadership yields better results in the form of employee job performance, satisfaction and motivation. This study also focuses on the role played by transformational leadership in motivating the employees to perform better at work and stay motivated. In their first study, the authors have conducted this research by surveying 247 participants/ individuals on leadership position with 654 individuals working as their direct subordinates. It was spread on a variety of nine organisations such as one governmental, one not-for-profit and the remaining seven were private businesses. The second study focuses on a sample of 162 participants who were undergraduate management students at a university. However, both the studies find an insignificant relationship between transformational leadership and the development of self-concordance on the part of employees. The authors suggest that the results of their two studies provide "better understanding of the psychological